Volume 5, No. 1 – Fall 2003 (Issue #9)
Symposium on “Rand, Rush, and Rock”
A discussion of the philosophical and cultural relationship between Ayn Rand and progressive rock, prompted by an exchange over Chris Matthew Sciabarra’s Fall 2002 essay, “Rand, Rush, and Rock.”
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PROBLEMATIC ARGUMENTS IN RANDIAN ETHICS, pp. 1-66
The author critically surveys a range of arguments characteristic of Randian writings in ethics (including Craig Biddle’s Loving Life). He focuses on “the Shuffle,” a set of argumentative moves in which there is illicit shifting back and forth between causal and conceptual understandings and defenses of claims of the form: Man’s survival requires man’s behaving in manner X (e.g., being rational, being productive). Mack concludes that much Randian argumentation is deeply flawed and urges admirers to discriminate between Rand’s genuine individualist ethical crusade and her line-by-line argumentation, which includes a much too strict identification of man’s good with man’s survival.
WHAT ARE ENTITIES?, pp. 67-86
Jilk argues that the division of existence into entities is a result of epistemological processes and is not intrinsic to existence. The physical content of what we call an entity exists independent of any conscious observer. But that which we call an entity is not actually separate in reality from the rest of existence — its isolation as independent is solely the result of objective epistemological processes.
ART AND THE PURSUIT OF A CULTURAL RENAISSANCE, pp. 87-95
Kirsti Minsaas reviews Alexandra York’s essay-collection, From the Fountainhead to the Future. Minsaas points out certain similarities between York’s campaign for a cultural renaissance and Ayn Rand’s call, in The Romantic Manifesto, for a rebirth of the ideals that informed the Romantic movement. Basically sympathetic to York’s project, Minsaas does, however, express certain reservations about York’s activist approach, which she finds weakens the book’s scholarly value. Also, she finds that York is too one-sided in her advocacy of a life-affirming and inspiring art by downplaying the need for art that explores the darker sides of life in constructive ways.
REBUTTAL WITNESSES, pp. 97-103
Dean Brooks reviews Facets of Ayn Rand, the first in a series of oral histories published by the Ayn Rand Institute. The book delivers some relevant and needed background on Rand’s everyday life as seen by longtime friends Mary Ann and Charles Sures. However, it falls short in its stated objective of rebutting Rand’s critics. Events already described at great length in other biographies are here given a heavily censored and unconvincing “party line.”
REPLY TO THE AESTHETICS SYMPOSIUM (SPRING 2001): SCHOLARLY ENGAGEMENT: WHEN IT IS PLEASURABLE AND WHEN IT IS NOT, pp. 105-51
Torres examines key studies and commentaries on the nature of scholarship, especially regarding commonly accepted standards of scholarly writing, before responding to the essays in The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies‘ Aesthetics Symposium, most of which critiqued portions of What Art Is: The Esthetic Theory of Ayn Rand. He concludes that only two of the essays meet such standards as knowledge of subject matter, rules of evidence, clarity of communication (especially avoidance of jargon), and integrity (including honesty, objectivity, and civility) — even when critical of his and Michelle Kamhi’s co-authored work. The other essays, he argues, are flawed in varying respects.
AYN RAND AND PROGRESSIVE ROCK SYMPOSIUM ON “RAND, RUSH, AND ROCK” REPLIES TO CHRIS MATTHEW SCIABARRA’S FALL 2002 ARTICLE
TO RAND OR NOT TO RAND?: NEIL PEART’S VARIED INFLUENCES, pp. 153-60
Bowman suggests that Ayn Rand’s influence on Neil Peart’s lyrics mainly existed in a few science-fiction and technology-oriented works from the mid-1970s to the early-1980s. Peart’s individualism in the 1980s had at least as much to do with Hemingway, Faulkner, religious imagery (although he was an agnostic), and other influences. Many of his lyrics (1975-2002) suggest “left-wing libertarianism,” random contingencies, science, nature, the environment, relationships, and even humor. In any case, Peart’s copious reading and varied lyrics contradict Rand as his “major influence.”
RAND, RUSH, AND DE-TOTALIZING THE UTOPIANISM OF PROGRESSIVE ROCK, pp. 161-72
Horwitz argues that the music of Rush can legitimately claim to be progressive rock, both during the mid-70s when their music was most clearly related to that tradition and in their less obviously progressive work in the 80s and 90s. Rush’s libertarian/Randian lyrics do not, as several authors argue, reduce their claim to progressivity because libertarianism can be viewed as a progressive, utopian social philosophy. Rush’s career parallels the rise of libertarian thought, and the band’s move away from large, long-song structures parallels libertarianism’s critique of the totalizing, centralized utopias of much leftist thought.
CONCERNING THE POLITICS OF PROG, pp. 173-88
Macan considers whether progressive rock is inextricably linked to a specific political ideology. Progressive rock emerged out of the late sixties British hippie movement. Its politics, though influenced by the left, were never monolithic. Using the late nineteenth-century philosophical/cultural phenomenon of “Wagnerism” as a point of reference, Macan demonstrates that progressive rock’s impact was primarily a result not of its nebulous political ideology, but of its aesthetic stance, which stresses individualism, idealism, authenticity, and art-as-transcendence. In keeping with its Romantic ethos of transcendence and a utopian politics, progressive rock subjected philosophical, cultural, and social opposites to a Hegelian synthesis.
AYN RAND AND THE MUSIC OF RUSH: RHAPSODIC REFLECTIONS, pp. 189-213
Martin replies to Sciabarra’s essay on Rand, Rush, and progressive rock with critical reflections from a Marxist perspective. Focusing on the film version of The Fountainhead, which shares much in common with film noir and Socialist Realism, Martin rejects as reification Rand’s emphasis on property as the defining feature of human life. Her dismissal of rock music has overtones of racism and Eurocentrism. The rock band Rush may have drawn inspiration from Howard Roark, but two other real-life role models would have been better suited: Ludwig van Beethoven and Frank Lloyd Wright.
FANCY MEETING RAND HERE, pp. 215-18
Price replies to Sciabarra’s criticism that Carol Selby Price and Robert Price’s Mystic Rhythms erroneously classifies Rush lyricist Neil Peart as “conservative.” “Conservative” may imply limitation of individual freedom by the government — or by organized religion. Peart leans more toward a non-religious libertarianism and Rand’s Objectivism, which may be considered “conservative” in the same narrow sense. Ironically, Randian thinkers share with religion the use of the Hero Myth archetype. Price focuses on recent Rand-type comic book superheroes, including Steve Ditko’s Mister A and The Question, and Alan Moore’s parody on these, Rorschach.
SAYING YES TO RAND AND ROCK, pp. 219-23
This article explores the personal meaning of progressive rock music (especially the music of Yes) and Rand’s fiction as both consistent with a world-view that values “joy and reason and meaning.” This exploration leads the author to ask whether Rand’s novels and philosophical project are progressive, and to urge further cross-pollination between libertarian and progressive thinking and action in politics and the arts.
LYRICIST NEIL PEART: A BRANDENIAN PEDIGREE, pp. 225-27
Welsh calls for further interpretations of the lyrics of noted rock musician-artist Neil Peart; he argues that it might uncover a broader Randian influence than currently reported and thus contribute to the ongoing resurrection of her ideas in popular culture. Welsh speculates that Peart might have more in common with Rand’s long-time associate, psychologist Nathaniel Branden, especially on the usage, meaning, and practice of self-esteem.
REJOINDER TO THE RESPONDENTS: RAND, ROCK, AND RADICALISM, pp. 229-41
Sciabarra replies to the seven respondents to his Fall 2002 essay on Rand, Rush, and progressive rock music. He defends the view that Rand’s dialectical orientation underlies a fundamentally radical perspective. Rand shared with the counterculture — especially its libertarian progressive rock representatives — a repudiation of authoritarianism, while embracing the “unknown ideal” of capitalism. Her ability to trace the interrelationships among personal, cultural, and structural factors in social analysis and her repudiation of false alternatives is at the heart of that ideal vision, which transcends left and right.
Durrell Bowman completed his Ph.D. in musicology at UCLA in 2003, with a dissertation entitled “Permanent Change: Rush, Musicians’ Rock, and the Progressive Post-Counterculture.” In 2003-04, he taught as a part-time sessional instructor in popular music and culture at Barrie, Ontario’s Georgian College. He also sings semi-professionally as a choral singer and works as a choral librarian, writer, editor, and computer consultant in the administration of the Elora Festival and Singers. In 2002-03, he served as a visiting instructor in the Department of Music at the University of Alberta, where he taught cultural musicology, popular music, film music, and music theory. His article “Let Them All Make Their Own Music: Individualism, Rush, and the Progressive/Hard Rock Alloy, 1976-77” appears in the book Progressive Rock Reconsidered (New York: Routledge, 2002). His paper “Textu(r)al Undercoding and the Music of the Rock Band Rush: String Quartets, Death Metal, Trip-Hop, and other Tributes” (presented in 2002-03 in Edmonton, New York, and elsewhere) argues that certain music facilitates an inversion of normative expectations concerning “progressive rock.” Among his other publications and conference papers, an article on “Art Rock” appears in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, a review article on “South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut” appears in echo: a music-centered journal, and he also presented a paper at the 2003 IASPM-International conference in Montreal, Quebec.
Dean Brooks is founder and president of Ekaros Analytical Inc., a Canadian company specializing in mathematical tools and training. He has written professionally for numerous publications, as well as editing and publishing several books including Fraud Detection and Digital Analysis Using Benford’s Law. His past writing on Ayn Rand includes an essay defending TV’s “The Simpsons” and outlining problems in the Objectivist approach to comedy, that appeared in Reality magazine in 1993.
Steven Horwitz, an Associate Dean of the First Year and Professor of Economics, St. Lawrence University in Canton, New York 13617, is author of two books, Microfoundations and Macroeconomics: An Austrian Perspective (Routledge, 2000) and Monetary Evolution, Free Banking, and Economic Order (Westview, 1992). He has written extensively on Austrian economics, Hayekian political economy, monetary theory and history, and macroeconomics. His work has been published in professional journals such as History of Political Economy, Southern Economic Journal, and The Review of Austrian Economics. Horwitz currently serves as the book review editor of The Review of Austrian Economics and is the president of the Society for the Development of Austrian Economics. He is also a long-time Rush fan.
David J. Jilk has had a longtime interest in Objectivism and in epistemology in particular. He has an extensive business background as an entrepreneur, investor, and executive in software and Internet companies. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and is currently studying computational models of cognitive systems at the University of Colorado, Boulder.
Ed Macan is a Professor of Music, Art Department, College of the Redwoods,7351 Tompkins Hill Road, Eureka, California 95501. He is the author of Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture (Oxford University Press, 1997). He is also keyboardist, mallet percussionist, and principal composer of the band Hermetic Science, whose three albums, Hermetic Science (1997), Prophesies (1999), and En Route (2001) have won much critical acclaim in the worldwide progressive music community.
Eric Mack, Tulane University, Department of Philosophy, Newcomb Hall, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, is also a faculty member of Tulane’s Murphy Institute of Political Economy. He has published extensively in scholarly journals and anthologies and lectured widely on topics in moral, political, and legal theory — especially on moral individualism and the agent-relativity of value, the philosophical foundation of moral rights, property rights, the legitimacy and authority (if any) of coercive institutions, the defense of classical liberalism against Marxist and egalitarian challenges, and classical liberal themes in the history of political philosophy.
Bill Martin is a Professor of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, DePaul University, Byrne Hall, 2219 N. Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60614. He is the author of seven books in the fields of social theory, contemporary continental philosophy, and music. At present, he is completing a book under the title, Ethical Marxism: The Categorical Imperative of Communism. He is also an avid cyclist and chess player, and he has played the bass guitar for over thirty years.
Kirsti Minsaas, University of Oslo, Department of British and American Studies, P. O. Box 1003 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway, is senior lecturer in English literature at the University of Oslo. Receiving her doctorate in 1998, her dissertation topic was on the role of Aristotelian catharsis in Shakespearean tragedy, and she is currently working on a project on the “exemplary hero” in English literature from 1590 to 1820. She has also lectured extensively on Ayn Rand’s fiction, both in Europe and in the United States.
Robert M. Price is the editor of the Journal of Higher Criticism and Director of the Institute for Higher Critical Studies, affiliated with the Johnnie Colemon Theological Seminary. He is the author of Beyond Born Again (1983), The Widow Traditions in Luke-Acts: A Feminist-Critical Scrutiny (1996), Deconstructing Jesus (2000) and The Incredible Shrinking Son of Man (2003). He holds a Ph.D., Theology (1981) and a Ph.D., New Testament (1993) from Drew University.
Peter Saint-Andre is an independent scholar living in Denver, Colorado. When not working as Executive Director of the Jabber Software Foundation, he is also active as a poet, musician, translator, and essayist.
Chris Matthew Sciabarra received his Ph.D., with distinction, in political theory, philosophy, and methodology from New York University. He is the author of the “Dialectics and Liberty Trilogy,” which includes Marx, Hayek, and Utopia (State University of New York Press, 1995), Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), and Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). He is also coeditor, with Mimi Reisel Gladstein, of Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999), and a founding coeditor of The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies (1999–present). His articles and letters on popular culture and music have appeared in publications as diverse as the New York Daily News, Billboard, Film Score Monthly, Just Jazz Guitar, Jazz Times, and The Free Radical.
Louis Torres is an independent scholar and critic. He is co-author of What Art Is: The Esthetic Theory of Ayn Rand (2000), and is co-editor of Aristos, an online review of the arts — successor to the print journal of the same name, which he founded in 1982, and co-edited until its discontinuation in 1997. A graduate of Rutgers University, where he majored in Psychology, he earned an M.A. in the teaching of English at Teachers College, Columbia University. Prior to founding Aristos, he taught English and arts appreciation in public and private high schools. He is a specialist in the neglected fiction of Jack Schaefer, author of Shane.
Thomas Welsh is a technical writer and database administrator, supports BP SOLAR’s global engineering product development efforts. He has reviewed Neil Peart’s book, Ghost Rider: Travels on the Healing Road (2002) for various online and print publications. Past and present forays have included stints as a small business owner and working for the oldest university press, The Johns-Hopkins University Press.
Volume 5, No. 2 – Spring 2004 (Issue #10)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE MAGNIFICENT PROGRESS ACHIEVED BY CAPITALISM: IS THE EVIDENCE INCONTROVERTIBLE?, pp. 251-69
Van Den Berg argues that Rand’s claim that evidence of capitalism’s success is “incontrovertible” cannot be confirmed using familiar annual GDP per capita figures. This article argues that annual GDP per capita cannot logically represent individual welfare because it measures an annual income flow while individuals judge their welfare by their lifetime income. Data are available to measure an economy’s capacity to enhance individual lifetime welfare. Not only does this measure come closer to Rand’s focus on the individual, it also suggests that the past 200 years of capitalist development have raised individual welfare even more than the familiar, but misleading, annual GDP measures show.
UNIVERSALS AND MEASUREMENT, pp. 271-304
Boydstun argues that Rand’s measurement-omission analysis of concepts implies a distinctive magnitude structure for metaphysics. This is structure beyond logical structure, constraint on possibility beyond logical constraint. Yet, it is structure ranging as widely as logical structure through all the sciences and common experience. Boydstun uncovers this distinctive magnitude structure, characterizing it by its automorphisms, by its location among the mathematical categories, and by the types of measurement it affords. He uncovers a structure to universals implicit in Rand’s theory that is additional to recurrence structure.
ART AS MICROCOSM, pp. 305-63
Bissell offers a new interpretation and clarification of Rand’s definition of art, maintaining that an artwork, like language, functions as a “tool of cognition,” and that it does so more specifically as a special kind of microcosm which presents an imaginary world. In particular, he argues that architecture and music are aesthetic microcosms and tools of cognition that re-create reality and embody fundamental abstractions and, thus, contrary to assertions by certain Objectivist writers, are forms of art consistent with Rand’s definition and concept.
AYN RAND IN THE SCHOLARLY LITERATURE IV: AYN RAND IN ENGLAND, pp. 365-400
Dykes reports that Ayn Rand has never had anything approaching the same success in England that she has had in the United States. Nevertheless, her work has established a definite niche in most of the main media of communication, and in recent years has begun to receive more attention. This article traces Rand’s impact in the British Isles since 1937, and suggests some reasons why she did not repeat her American triumphs “across the pond.”
AN ECONOMIST READS PHILOSOPHY, pp. 401-8
Thomas reviews economist Leland Yeager’s Ethics as Social Science. Yeager presents an argument for a utilitarianism that in its commitment to a reality-oriented, practical, principled ethics of human happiness resembles Rand’s Objectivism. The book incorporates a wide and varied literature, including virtually everything written on Objectivism. In sum, it is like an Old Right reconstruction of utilitarianism in response to Randian critiques. The principal shortcoming of the book is its lack of precision, novelty, and clarity in addressing philosophical problems. This results in sloppy reasoning that renders its conclusions unconvincing.
CAPITALISM AND VIRTUE, pp. 409-20
Wilkinson reviews the philosophical aspects of Dinesh D’Souza’s The Virtue of Prosperity: Finding Values in an Age of Techno-Affluence. D’Souza’s general support of free-markets and technological innovation is noted, but he is criticized for his misreading of Ayn Rand, and for failing to provide an adequate moral defense of capitalism. Additionally, Wilkinson finds D’Souza philosophically confused in discussions of the significance of the scientific image of human nature, genetic manipulation, and cloning.
A DIRECT REALIST’S CHALLENGE TO SKEPTICISM, pp. 421-40
Armstrong reviews Michael Huemer’s Skepticism and the Veil of Perception and finds in it strong support for the perceptual theory of direct realism. However, Huemer incorrectly assumes perceptual experiences can contain conceptual — and thus causal — information. Regardless, Huemer’s theory of “phenomenal conservatism” serves to justify our perceptual judgments and refute skepticism in a way compatible with the preliminary work of Objectivist philosophers, such as David Kelley and Leonard Peikoff.
REPLY TO MICHAEL HUEMER’S “IS BENEVOLENT EGOISM COHERENT?” (SPRING 2002): ON EGOISM AND PREDATORY BEHAVIOR, pp. 441-56
Young argues against Michael Huemer’s contention that egoism demands sacrificing others. The centrality of mutual trust in achieving vital socially-produced goods requires that egoism strictly limit, in degree and scope, any allowable predation. The need for genuine and meaningful social recognition and affirmation rules out achieving mutual trust while secretly being a predator. Egoism may not support a strong Randian principle of never sacrificing others for the benefit of oneself but it plausibly supports a principle of never achieving particular benefits for oneself by imposing on others costs that undermine mutual trust.
REJOINDER TO MICHAEL YOUNG: EGOISM AND PRUDENT PREDATION, pp. 457-68
Huemer responds to Michael Young’s argument that an ethical egoist should not embrace prudent predation because accepting a principle of prudent predation has serious negative consequences over and above the consequences of individual predatory acts. In addition, he addresses the advantages Young claims for an agent-relative conception of value over an agent-neutral one. He finds that the agent-relative conception does not clearly have any of the advantages Young names, and that some paradigmatic uses of the concept of value are agent-neutral.
OBJECTIVISM: ON STAGE AND SELF DESTRUCTIVE, pp. 469-78
Michalson reviews Sky Gilbert’s play, The Emotionalists. She reads Gilbert’s play as an exploration of the tragic effects of Objectivism on individuals who wholeheartedly embrace Rand’s philosophy before finding that they cannot live up to all of its demands. She focuses on the character of Marcel Pin, a closeted gay man who destroys his very self in a startling attempt to conform his life to Objectivist ideals.
REPLY TO KAREN MICHALSON: RAND AS GURU: WILL IT NEVER END?, pp. 479-83
Gilbert responds to Karen Michalson’s review of his play, The Emotionalists. Gilbert finds her unwillingness to deal with the main plot (which deals with Rand’s personal life) to be a sign of lingering idolatry. A discussion of Rand’s reputation as guru and the function of the guru in society follows.
REJOINDER TO SKY GILBERT: RAND AS WHAT?, pp. 485-89
Michalson responds to Sky Gilbert’s response to her review of The Emotionalists.
Ari Armstrong, P.O. Box 745015, Arvada, Colorado 80006, graduated from Pepperdine University in 1994 with a B.A. in economics and a minor in philosophy. He edits The Colorado Freedom Report and he has written articles about politics and culture for The Washington Post, The Denver Post, The Rocky Mountain News, Liberty, and other publications.
Roger E. Bissell is a professional musician and graduate student at California Coast University. He is a writer on psychology and philosophy. His work has appeared in a number of other publications, including Reason Papers, Objectivity, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vera Lex, and ART Ideas. Roger’s trombone playing is featured on a jazz CD released in December 2003.
Stephen Boydstun earned his B.S. degrees in physics and engineering, with graduate studies in physics and philosophy, and was founder and editor of the philosophy journal Objectivity (1990-98).
Nicholas Dykes, a British/Canadian writer currently living in England, is the author of “Debunking Popper: A Critique of Karl Popper’s Critical Rationalism,” Reason Papers (Fall 1999); Mrs Logic and the Law: A Critique of Ayn Rand’s View of Government (London: Libertarian Alliance, 1998); A Tangled Web of Guesses: A Critical Assessment of the Philosophy of Karl Popper (London: Libertarian Alliance, 1996); Fed Up with Government? (Hereford UK: Four Nations, 1991); and “The Facts of Reality: Logic and History in Objectivist Debates about Government” (forthcoming, The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies).
Sky Gilbert is a writer, filmmaker, director, and drag queen extraordinaire — one of North America’s most controversial artistic forces. ECW Press published his first collection of poetry, Digressions of a Naked Party Girl, and his theatre memoir Ejaculations from the Charm Factory in 2000. His first three novels — Guilty (1998), St. Stephen’s (1999) and I am Kasper Klotz (2001) — were critically acclaimed. His fourth novel, An English Gentleman, was published by Cormorant Books in September 2003, and his second book of collected poems Temptations for a Juvenile Delinquent was published by ECW in November 2003. By day, Sky is an Assistant Professor in Theatre Studies at Guelph University.
Michael Huemer is an Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Philosophy Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0232. He received his Ph.D. from Rutgers University in 1998. His primary research is in the areas of epistemology and meta-ethics. He is the author of Skepticism and the Veil of Perception (Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).
Karen Michalson, P.O. Box 332, Southbridge, Massachusetts 01550, is the author of two libertarian-influenced fantasy novels, Enemy Glory (Tor 2001) and Hecate’s Glory (Tor 2003). The former was a finalist for the 2002 Prometheus Award and the latter has been nominated for the 2004 Prometheus Award. She holds a Ph.D. in English from the University of Massachusetts Amherst and is currently working on a law degree at Western New England College. When not writing or studying, she plays bass and sings in her progressive rock band, Point Of Ares.
William Thomas is Director of Programs at The Objectivist Center, 11 Raymond Avenue, Poughkeepsie, New York 12603, and earned an M.A. in Economics from the University of Michigan (1991), where he taught the economic history of the United States and China. His essays on topics in literature, politics, ethics, and epistemology have appeared in publications such as Navigator and Ideas on Liberty. He is the author of “What is Objectivism?” and other essays on The Objectivist Center’s website, and of the audio course The Essence of Objectivism. His essay “Ayn Rand, Radical for Capitalism” was recently published in Frost and Sikkenga, eds., History of American Political Thought (Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2003). He is the editor of the Objectivist Studies series of philosophical monographs, and of The Literary Art of Ayn Rand (forthcoming).
Hendrik Van Den Berg is an Associate Professor, Department of Economics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0489. He received his B.A. and M.A. degrees in economics from the State University of New York at Albany in 1971 and 1973, respectively. He was a Foreign Service Officer with the U.S. Department of State and served at the U.S. Embassy in Managua, Nicaragua and the U.S. Trade Center in São Paulo, Brazil from 1974 to 1979, and he was Planning Manager for Singer do Brasil (Subsidiary of the Singer Company) from 1980 to 1983. He enrolled at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1985; he received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Economics in 1987 and 1989, with a specialization in International Economics. He has published numerous articles on international trade, international finance, and economic growth. He has written two textbooks, Economic Growth and Development (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001) and International Economics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), and he is currently completing a manuscript on the theoretical relationship between free trade and economic growth.
Will Wilkinson, Department of Philosophy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, is a Ph.D. student in Philosophy at the University of Maryland. His studies center on the intersection of moral and political philosophy with the social and cognitive sciences.
Michael Young, Department of Philosophy, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02904, is a philosophy graduate student at Brown.