PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS IN CONTEMPORARY ART CRITICISM: OBJECTIVISM, POSTSTRUCTURALISM, AND THE AXIOM OF AUTHORSHIP, pp. 153-200
This article argues that, propaedeutic to the construction of an Objectivist aesthetics, scholars must refute the irrational/immoral philosophical premises that have been destroying the philosophy of art. Due to the troubling combination of its contemporaneity, extremism, and considerable influence, poststructuralism, which, since the 1960s, has served as the default philosophical foundation for philosophers of art, is the target of this article. Its contention is that the road to an Objectivist aesthetics must first be cleared of philosophical debris like poststructuralism before we can hope to go back to the world of art.
PROFIT MAXIMIZATION DOES NOT NECESSITATE PROFIT PRIORITIZATION, pp. 201-26
One of the grounds on which profit maximization has been morally condemned is the claim that businessmen are led by the logic of profit maximization to prioritize profit above all other values, including human life. Thus, while business critics claim that they object to profit maximization, what, at least some of them, in fact object to is profit prioritization. Drawing upon Ayn Rand's distinction between the intrinsic and objective theories of value, this article unpackages profit maximization and profit prioritization, arguing that businessmen can maximize profit without having to prioritize profit above all other values.
THE OBJECTIVE-SUBJECTIVE DICHOTOMY AND RAND'S TRICHOTOMY, pp. 227-37
The term "objective" has both a metaphysical and an
epistemological meaning, and each of these meanings gives rise to a corresponding
objective-subjective dichotomy. A formal definition of (epistemological) objectivity is given, and
this clarifies the nature of the epistemological dichotomy. These dichotomies are represented by
classes of existents, and a Venn type diagram is used to illustrate the relationship between them.
It is shown that the class of all existents can be partitioned into three mutually exclusive and
exhaustive classes, which correspond to Rand's intrinsic-subjective-objective trichotomy.
WHEN "A IS NOT A": REFLECTIONS ON A CONVERSATION, pp. 238-74
The author addresses speech restrictions on campuses, the axiom "A is A" as it applies to men and women, Roe v. Wade and its effect on examining the definition of personhood, and how this examination may have contributed to the anti-conceptual mentality that was already under way on campuses and elsewhere.
THE NEW TYPE OF HERO IN AYN RAND'S NOVELS AND ITS HISTORICAL ROOTS, pp. 275-84
This article examines the new type of hero created by Ayn Rand and finds its roots in Chernyshevsky's "new human." Rand's characters share such features as extremism, asceticism, escapism, and the desire to transform the world. Moreover, Rand's heroes exhibit the self-building and "wholeness" traits of the "superhuman" as found in myths and in Renaissance and Masonic ideas.
ATLAS SHRUGGED AND SOCIAL CHANGE, pp. 285- 305
The purpose of this article is to discuss the several ways in which Atlas Shrugged is related to social change. It explains both how characters such as entrepreneurs and strikers introduce change in the novel as well as how Atlas Shrugged itself can be employed as a tool for bringing about change in the real world. The potential effects of the novel on readers are examined, as are the efforts of social movements that have embraced and incorporated the ideas found therein into their own philosophy.
The following two articles (by Roger E. Bissell and Chris Matthew Sciabarra) were written in response to Wendy McElroy's review of the second edition of Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical, which appeared in the July 2015 issue of The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies. The replies also incorporate responses to other critical commentaries on Sciabarra's work, which appear in A Companion to Ayn Rand, part of the Blackwell Companions to Philosophy series. Though Ms. McElroy was invited to write a rejoinder to the replies herein, she has respectfully declined to respond due to deadline pressures regarding books and other projects to which she is committed.
REPLY TO THE CRITICS OF RUSSIAN RADICAL 2.0: DEFINING ISSUES, pp. 306-20
The author assures readers that Chris Matthew Sciabarra has met all Aristotelian (if not Objectivist) requirements in full, providing not one but two definitions of "dialectics," which, as the art of context-keeping, is indeed an essential part of Ayn Rand's philosophical method. He shows how Sciabarra's definitional process compares quite favorably in terms of timeliness, transparency, and benevolence to that of Rand and other Objectivists, and notes that Sciabarra's overriding concern, notwithstanding his obvious great respect for Rand's philosophical achievements, has been to identify and clarify the methods she and other thinkers have used to profound benefit.
REPLY TO THE CRITICS OF RUSSIAN RADICAL 2.0: THE DIALECTICAL RAND, pp. 321-57
Sciabarra responds to critics of the second edition of his book, Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical: Wendy McElroy, who reviewed the book for The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies (July 2015), and Shoshana Milgram and Gregory Salmieri, whose most recent criticisms appear in A Companion to Ayn Rand (2016). Sciabarra defends both his historical and methodological theses, situating the book within a trilogy of works that define and defend "dialectical libertarianism," which eschews utopian thinking and embraces a fully radical mode of inquiry. Sciabarra argues that dialectics---the art of context- keeping---figures prominently throughout Rand's literary and philosophical corpus.
Arnold Baise is an independent scholar. He has worked as a research chemist and as a computer programmer, and has a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Wales in the UK and an MS in computer science from Marist College. He has published "Probability, Objectivity, and Induction" (December 2013) and "Selfishness and the OED" (July 2015) in The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies.
Kyle Barrowman is a Ph.D. student in the School of Journalism, Media, and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University. He is the editorial assistant of the Martial Arts Studies journal. His research focuses on issues of aesthetics and philosophy in the history of film and on the possibilities of an Objectivist aesthetics.
Roger Bissell is a professional musician and a writer on philosophy and psychology, specializing in aesthetics, logic and epistemology, and personality type theory. A research associate with the Molinari Institute, his work has appeared in a number of other publications, including Reason Papers, Objectivity, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Bulletin of the Association for Psychological Type, Vera Lex, and ART Ideas. His mock transcription of a lecture by the fictional composer Richard Halley was published in Edward W. Younkins's 2007 compilation, Ayn Rand's "Atlas Shrugged": A Philosophical and Literary Companion, and he supervised the transcription of Nathaniel Branden's lectures for the 2009 publication of The Vision of Ayn Rand: The Basic Principles of Objectivism, and of Barbara Branden's lectures published as Think as if Your Life Depends on It: Principles of Efficient Thinking and Other Essays (CreateSpace, 2017). His first book, How the Martians Discovered Algebra: Explorations in Induction and the Philosophy of Mathematics, is available from Amazon Kindle. He also frequently performs on recording sessions and jazz engagements, and his CDs feature his trombone playing, singing, musical arrangements, and original compositions.
Anastasiya Vasilievna Grigorovskaya, candidate degree in philology, is an associate professor in the Department of Russian and Foreign Literature at Tyumen State University. She is a member of the Russian Society of American Culture Studies (Moscow) and European Association of American Studies (UK). Her candidate thesis is devoted to modern Russian anti-utopias. She is a coauthor of the monograph, The Russian Project of World Correction and Art Creativity of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Moscow, 2014). She is working on the first doctoral thesis about Ayn Rand in Russia. She was a participant of The Third Memorial Conference on Ayn Rand (Adam Smith Center, Saint Petersburg, 2017). Among her nine publications on Rand, in Russian, there are: "Masonic Code in Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead" (Culture and Civilization no. 1A : 195-20) and "The First American Novel about Soviet Russia: 'The Living' and 'The Dead' in Ayn Rand's novel We the Living" (Political Linguistics, no. 1 : 134-40). Her aim is to revive Ayn Rand's reputation under today's conditions of globalization and to promote future investigations of Rand's Russian origins.
CHRIS MATTHEW SCIABARRA
Chris Matthew Sciabarra received his Ph.D., with distinction, in political theory, philosophy, and methodology from New York University. He is the author of the "Dialectics and Liberty Trilogy," which includes Marx, Hayek, and Utopia (State University of New York Press, 1995), Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995; expanded second edition, 2013), and Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). He is also coeditor, with Mimi Reisel Gladstein, of Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999), and a founding coeditor of The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies (1999-present). He has written over a dozen encyclopedia entries dealing with Objectivism and libertarianism, given over 50 interviews published in such periodicals as The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Boston Globe, Philadelphia Inquirer, The Village Voice, and The Economist, and published over 150 essays, which have appeared in publications as diverse as Critical Review, Reason Papers, Liberty, Reason, The New York Daily News, Film Score Monthly, Jazz Times, Just Jazz Guitar, and Billboard.
Kathleen Touchstone is a retired educator from Troy University
and the author of the book Then Athena Said: Unilateral Transfers
and the Transformation of Objectivist Ethics as well as several articles.
Robert White is dean of faculty and assistant professor of
philosophy. He taught business ethics for almost ten years at the American University in
Bulgaria. His Ph.D. on Ayn Rand's ethics was completed at the University of Auckland, New
Zealand. His work has been published in The Free Radical,
The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, and Ethical Perspectives. He has a chapter on Rand's ethics in Mad Men and Philosophy, published as part of the Blackwell
Philosophy and Pop Culture Series, and in Steve Jobs and
Philosophy, published as part of the Open Court Popular Culture and Philosophy series.
His first book, The Moral Case for Profit Maximization, will
be published by Lexington Books in 2019.
EDWARD W. YOUNKINS
Edward W. Younkins, professor, Department of Business, Wheeling Jesuit University, 316 Washington Avenue, Wheeling, West Virginia, 26003, is the author of numerous articles in accounting and business journals. In addition, his many free-market-oriented articles and reviews have appeared in a variety of publications. He is the author of Capitalism and Commerce: Conceptual Foundations of Free Enterprise (Lexington Books, 2002) and Champions of a Free Society: Ideas of Capitalism's Philosophers and Economists (Lexington Books, 2008). He is the editor of Ayn Rand's "Atlas Shrugged": A Philosophical and Literary Companion (Ashgate, 2007). His newest two books are
RUSSIAN EGOISM GOES TO AMERICA? A CASE FOR A
CONNECTION BETWEEN AYN RAND AND THE SHESTIDESIATNIKI, pp. 1-27
This article argues that the egoism of nihilists Nikolai Chernyshevskii and Dmitrii Pisarev was a significant influence on the thought of Ayn Rand. Chernyshevskii and Pisarev are usually cast as influences on Russian socialists. Rand was an unapologetic proponent of capitalism. But these differences in economic philosophy should be seen as secondary to the egoism that was primary for all three thinkers. The claim that Chernyshevskii and Pisarev may have influenced Rand is one that provides a new way to think about the historical significance of nihilism.
JUST WHO IS JOHN GALT, ANYWAY? A CARNIVALESQUE APPROACH TO ATLAS SHRUGGED, pp. 28-40
Based on a paper delivered at a conference devoted to carnivalesque studies, this article focuses attention on Rand's masterwork, Atlas Shrugged. By utilizing the carnivalesque techniques of Menippean satire and the "dialogic" interplay of narrative voices, with trickster-heroes as the agents of social change, the author argues that Rand ruthlessly deconstructs the logic of command economies and models a society turned, as Bakhtin would say, "topsy turvy" in favor of pure free enterprise. In doing so, she also contests the political boundaries of a stereotypically left-wing genre whose scholars are also typically Marxian.
THE BENEFICIARY STATEMENT AND BEYOND, pp. 41-53
The beneficiary statement refers to a passage in the Introduction of The Virtue of Selfishness. It concerns who the beneficiary of an action should be and any breach between actor and beneficiary. This article critiques said passage and shows how rational self-interest extends beyond the actor's self-interest more narrowly conceived. It critiques the Trader Principle and shows further how trade extends rational self-interest beyond the actor's self-interest more narrowly conceived. It shows how the virtue of independence does not imply that all dependence is a vice. Dependence in collaborative action even extends to the virtue of productiveness.
ULTIMATE VALUE: SELF-CONTRADICTORY, pp. 54-67
Ever since Ayn Rand's groundbreaking analysis of life and value, and her formulation of the Objectivist ethics, controversy has been generated over the relation between the "choice to live" and the status of life as the "ultimate value." The author argues that the concept "Value" should be modified to denote "that which [an organism] acts to gain and/or keep" that serves as the means to a further end. Deeper analysis shows that the term "ultimate value" is self-contradictory and has been detrimental to the study of the foundations of the Objectivist ethical theory.
SIX YEARS OUTSIDE THE ARCHIVES: THE CHRONICLE OF A MISADVENTURE, IN THREE ACTS, pp. 68-83
ROBERT L. CAMPBELL
In a 2014 article, the author noted that he had made contact with the Ayn Rand Archives regarding recordings and transcripts of Ayn Rand's question and answer sessions. Here he tells the full story, which began well before that article was published, and ended just recently. The Ayn Rand Archives has finally achieved truth in labeling.
DEBUNKING NEOSOCIALISM, pp. 84-103
GARY JAMES JASON
In this article, the author reviews in detail Christopher Snowdon's recent monograph Selfishness, Greed, and Capitalism: Debunking Myths about the Free Market. In the book, Snowdon sets about to debunk a number of distortions of---and outright myths about---free market economics. The distortions include strawmen such as the claim that free market economics assumes all people are motivated solely by selfish greed. The myths include views such as the Easterlin Paradox. The author suggests a number of ways Snowdon's analysis could have been improved.
DEBUNKING ECOFUNDAMENTALISM, pp. 103-9
HANNES H. GISSURARSON
Rognvaldur Hannesson, an international authority on natural resource management, has written a well-argued book [Ecofundamentalism: A Critique of Extreme Environmentalism] against ecofundamentalism, which, for him, puts nature before man. He cogently discusses the problems of applying notions of sustainability and biodiversity to the human condition and suggests that in the foreseeable future fossil fuels should still be utilized as energy sources. Hannesson regards models of global warming as scientific but as too uncertain for mankind to radically alter its ways of life. But he does not distinguish clearly between reasonable environmentalists and the real ecofundamentalists who disguise conflicts between themselves and others as conflicts between man and nature.
AFTER THE AVANT-GARDES, pp. 109-15
The author reviews After the Avant-Gardes: Reflections on the Future of the Fine Arts edited by Elizabeth Millan, and agrees with many of its contributors that avant-garde art and totalitarianism are based on the same worldview. The author views this collection as a brilliant critique of the avant-garde, which might provide a way to transcend its deeply dehumanizing effects.
REPLY TO ROGER E. BISSELL: THINKING VOLITION, pp. 116-18
The author agrees with much of Roger E. Bissell's critique of the Objectivist idea of volition (in his July 2015 essay, "Where There's a Will, There's a 'Why': A Critique of the Objectivist Theory of Volition"), especially as expressed by Leonard Peikoff. On the other hand, the author believes Bissell's reform of the Objectivist conception is at best minimal and it lacks attention to thinking as an integral part of volition.
REJOINDER TO MERLIN JETTON: CONDITIONS OF VOLITION, pp. 119-27
ROGER E. BISSELL
The author shows that Peikoff hasn't deviated from official Objectivism on volition, that he advocates the same view Rand endorsed in 1976. He challenges Objectivism's claim that the choice to focus is the ultimate ground of other choices, instead arguing that the choice to focus rests on one's preference to be oriented toward reality, and that this preference precedes every deliberate decision to focus. The author insists that the cause of choices between alternatives is not a free-floating choice to focus, but the strongest preference at the time of each choice, that part of oneself (value) that determines one's action.
REPLY TO MARSHA FAMILARO ENRIGHT: REMEMBERING THE "SELF" IN "SELF-ISH-NESS", pp.128-46
This article is a reply to Marsha Enright's essay "The Problem with Selfishness." Enright argues that "selfishness" is not the correct designation for living according to the Objectivist ethics. This article defends Rand's use of "selfishness," on three grounds. First, the self is central to Rand's ethics, because a person must value his self before he can value anything or anyone. Second, immoral people are selfless, because organisms that function at the perceptual level of awareness do not have a self. Third, Rand has identified the exact meaning of "selfishness," whether or not her definition accords with dictionary definitions.
REJOINDER TO ROBERT WHITE: THE PROBLEM WITH "SELFISHNESS" IS STILL PROBLEMATIC, pp. 147-51
In this article, the author responds to "Remembering the 'Self' in 'Self-ish-ness'," Robert White's critique of her own article, "The Problem with Selfishness," which appeared in the July 2014 issue of The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies.
ROGER E. BISSELL
Roger Bissell is a professional musician and a writer on philosophy and psychology, specializing in aesthetics, logic and epistemology, and personality type theory. A research associate with the Molinari Institute, his work has appeared in a number of other publications, including Reason Papers, Objectivity, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Bulletin of the Association for Psychological Type, Vera Lex, and ART Ideas. His mock transcription of a lecture by the fictional composer Richard Halley was published in Edward W. Younkins's 2007 compilation, Ayn Rand's "Atlas Shrugged": A Philosophical and Literary Companion, and he supervised the transcription of Nathaniel Branden's lectures for the 2009 publication of The Vision of Ayn Rand: The Basic Principles of Objectivism and of Barbara Branden's lecture course, "Principles of Efficient Thinking," published in 2017. His first book, How the Martians Discovered Algebra: Explorations in Induction and the Philosophy of Mathematics, is available from Amazon Kindle. He also frequently performs on recording sessions and jazz engagements, and his CDs feature his trombone playing, singing, musical arrangements, and original compositions.
ROBERT L. CAMPBELL
Robert L. Campbell is a professor of psychology at Clemson
University, where he has taught since 1991. He has been associated with The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies since Volume 1, Issue 1, in
1999. The present article is a follow-up to three articles in this journal: "The Rewriting of Ayn
Rand's Spoken Answers" (2011), his review of Rand biographies by Jennifer Burns and Anne
Heller (2013), and his rejoinder to replies by Burns, Heller, and Mimi Reisel Gladstein
Troy Camplin has a Ph.D. in the humanities and is the lead
consultant at Camplin Creative Consulting. He has published several papers in Studies in Emergent Order and book chapters on spontaneous
order theory, short stories, and poetry. He is also the author of the book Diaphysics (2009),
Hear the Screams of
the Butterfly (2016), a novella.
Charles Duncan, professor, Department of English, Clark Atlanta University, 223 James P. Brawley Drive SW, Atlanta, GA 30314, A.B. Yale, 1960, Ph.D. Emory, 1966, is a core faculty member of the interdisciplinary humanities Ph.D. program at Clark Atlanta University. For many years, he edited the university's scholarly publications, and throughout the 1990s directed a series of NEH grants to promote the infusion of nonwestern literary texts into college and high school literature curricula. His eclectic research interests for the past several years have been shaped by the emerging school of biocultural criticism commonly known as Literary Darwinism, culminating in over a dozen conference papers and articles in The Evolutionary Review, Politics and Culture, ALSCW Literary Matters, The South Atlantic Review, and Interdisciplinary Literary Studies. As a long-standing fan of Ayn Rand's novels, he has eagerly awaited an opportunity to incorporate this Novum Organum into an analysis of her work, and the article here, notwithstanding its central thrust, serves that purpose in its concluding portions. Its central thrust, moreover, may also be construed as a defense of Ayn Rand's philosophy from the charges of Social Darwinism, which doctrinaire liberal critics have so often leveled against it.
MARSHA FAMILARO ENRIGHT
Marsha Familaro Enright, B.A. Biology, Northwestern
University, M.A. Psychology, The New School for Social Research, is an education entrepreneur,
writer, and psychotherapist. Her major project is the implementation of a new and innovative
higher education program through the Reason, Individualism, Freedom Institute of which she is
president, curriculum developer, and chief implementer through the Great Connections Seminar
in Chicago and Buenos Aires. She has written for The Journal of Ayn
Rand Studies, The New Individualist, Montessori Leadership,
Street, Free Voices. Her articles are available at The Fountainhead Institute. She is the editor of
Ayn Rand Explained: From Tyranny to Tea Party (Open
Court, 2013). Among her many other educational and social projects and organizations: The New
Intellectual Forum (founded by her in 1987), Council Oak Montessori School, ages 3-15
(founded by her in 1990), and Camp Indecon (Curriculum Developer and Lead Instructor from
1999 to 2007). Her interests are wide-ranging but always take a biopsychological bent.
HANNES H. GISSURARSON
Hannes H. Gissurarson, a professor of political theory at the University of Iceland, is the author of more than fifteen books in Icelandic, English, and Swedish. His 1985 doctoral dissertation at Oxford University was on F. A. Hayek's political theory, and he received the first prize in the 1984 Mont Pelerin Society Claude R. Lambe essay competition on Hayek's Road to Serfdom, He was the R. G. Collingwood Scholar at Pembroke College in 1984-85. A member of the Mont Pelerin Society since 1984, he was on its Board of Directors from 1998 to 2004, organizing a regional meeting in Iceland in 2005. He has been a visiting professor or scholar at Stanford University, UCLA, George Mason University, and universities in Italy and Japan. He was also a member of the Overseeing Board of Iceland's Central Bank from 2001 to 2009. He is the academic research director of an Icelandic think tank, RNH (Rannsoknarsetur um nyskopun og hagvoxt), where he has overseen and edited the publication in Icelandic translations of Ayn Rand's three major novels, We the Living, The Fountainhead, and Atlas Shrugged. His most recent books include a history of the Icelandic communist movement (2011) and a treatise on taxation and income distribution (2009). At present he is working on a report on the foreign factors in the 2008 Icelandic bank collapse.
Robert Hartford earned a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Pennsylvania in 1971. His interests include the foundations of ethics and the application of epistemology and ethics to promote a culture of self-responsibility and political freedom. He has presented talks at Objectivist conferences on the nature of value, proof of egoism, absolute political freedom, and social justice. His previous publications in The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, include "Objectivity and the Proof of Egoism" (Spring 2007) and "A Political Standard for Absolute Political Freedom" (July 2011).
Gary James Jason is a senior editor for Liberty and a lecturer in philosophy at California State University,
Fullerton. He has bachelor's degrees in physics and philosophy from UCLA, a master's degree
and Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Illinois, and a master's degree in computer
science from Kansas State University. His academic articles have appeared in Academic Questions, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review, Independent Review; Informal
Logic, Journal of Social Philosophy, Journal of Value Inquiry, Philosophy, Philosophia, Reason Papers, Social
Philosophy, and elsewhere. Most of these pieces can be read or downloaded from
Academia.edu, Researchgate.net, and Philpapers.org. His social and political pieces have
appeared in a number of magazines and newspapers, including American Thinker,
Los Angeles Daily News,
Angeles Herald-Examiner, Los Angeles Times,
Orange County Register,
Diego Tribune, Waco Tribune, and Washington Times. His academic books are Philosophic Thoughts: Essays on Logic and Philosophy (Peter
Lang), Critical Thinking: Developing an Effective
Worldview (Cengage/Wadsworth), Introduction to
Logic (Wadsworth), and The Logic of Scientific
Discovery (Peter Lang). His trade books are Disturbing
Thoughts: Unorthodox Writings on Timely Issues (CreateSpace), and Dangerous Thoughts: Provocative Writings on Contemporary
Merlin Jetton is an independent scholar. He graduated from the University of Illinois as a math major. He escaped academia in order to apply and expand his math skills in the real world of business. He is a fellow of the Society of Actuaries and a Chartered Financial Analyst. He retired after a twenty-eight-year career as an actuary and financial engineer, having specialized in asset-liability management the last fifteen years or so. He has been interested in Objectivism for decades. He was a member of the Chicago School of Objectivism, also known as the New Intellectual Forum. He was a presenter there several times and is the author of several articles in the journal Objectivity and four earlier ones in this periodical. He now lives in Ohio.
Aaron Weinacht is associate professor of history at the University of Montana Western, in Dillon, Montana. His research interests include Russian intellectual history and philosophy of history.
Robert White is assistant professor of philosophy and Dean of Faculty at the American University in Bulgaria, where he teaches business ethics. His Ph.D. on Ayn Rand's ethics was completed at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. His work has been published in The Free Radical, The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, and Ethical Perspectives. He has a chapter on Rand's ethics in Mad Men and Philosophy, published as part of the Open Court Popular Culture and Philosophy Series. His first book, The Moral Case for Profit Maximization, will be published by Lexington Books in 2019.