DE-MYSTIFYING EMOTION: INTRODUCING THE AFFECT THEORY OF SILVAN TOMKINS TO OBJECTIVISTS, pp. 1-18
A special video presentation
This article features a special video presentation, which is available for download from the JARS archives. This presentation provides the raw data upon which the article is based. The presentation of "The 9 Innate Affects -- S. S. Tomkins" in two formats: PC or Mac ["save as" to your local device]. Our special thanks to the author for providing this presentation for our archives, and for providing our readers with a multimedia experience. Readers who wish to have the original CD-ROM disc that accompanied this essay, along with the original hard copy of Issue #15, should contact us.
Objectivism's approach to the nature of emotion is incomplete. It has oversimplified emotional phenomena and has substantially underestimated the importance of emotion as a tool of survival. This article presents an introduction to Affect Theory, an approach to understanding emotion based on ostensive definitions, which was developed by the American psychologist Silvan S. Tomkins. Affect theory subsumes the Objectivist theory of emotion while being true to all the complexities of our emotional lives. This theory provides an important supplement to Objectivist thinking. The relationship between emotion and reason and the role of affect in shaping sense of life are considered.
SOME CONVERGENCES AND DIVERGENCES IN THE REALISM OF CHARLES PEIRCE AND AYN RAND, pp. 19-39
Structured around Charles S. Peirce's three-fold categorical scheme, this article proposes a comparative study of Ayn Rand and Peirce's realist views in general metaphysics. Rand's stance is seen as diverging with Peirce's argument from asymptotic representation but converging with arguments from brute relation and neutral category. It is argued that, by dismissing traditional subject-object dualisms, Rand and Peirce both propose iconoclastic construals of what it means to be real, dismissals made all the more noteworthy by the fact each chose to ground them in indissoluble triads of self-evident first principles.
RAND AND RESCHER ON TRUTH, pp. 41-48
This essay argues that Rand's conception of truth marshals all the strengths of the four theories of truth detailed by philosopher Nicholas Rescher: correspondence, coherence, intuitionistic, and pragmatic.
DECONSTRUCTING POSTMODERN XENOPHILIA, pp. 49-62
The most prominent feature of postmodern liberal relativism is its obsession with the Other, allegedly marginalized or repressed in the dominant Western culture. If all cultures are morally equal, then tolerance of, and openness to, the Other on the part of the enlightened postmoderns is the only non-repressive value. This view, dubbed "xenophilia," implies that hospitality to the most radically Other, ultimately to the enemy, is the highest virtue. There is a fatal complementarity between a culture defining itself as openness and any intolerant Other. The former can only succumb to, or be destroyed by, the latter.
ESSAYS ON AYN RAND'S FICTION, pp. 63-84
The two volumes edited by Robert Mayhew provide new information about the creation, publication, and histories of and . The essays were written by authors who had access to the Ayn Rand Archives, and whose work constitutes a good foundation for the study of these novels. Although both volumes contain chapters that deal unsatisfactorily with Rand's changes between editions and sometimes fail to acknowledge the work of other writers and scholars in the field, these collections also contain many new insights into Rand's life in Russia and the creative process and are great additions to Rand scholarship.
PUTTING HUMANS FIRST?, pp. 85-104
In , Tibor Machan argues against moral perspectives that require taking animals' interests seriously. He attempts to defend the status quo regarding routine, harmful uses of animals for food, fashion and experimentation. Graham and Nobis argue that Machan's work fails to resist pro-animal moral conclusions that are supported by a wide range of contemporary ethical arguments. [This article is featured on the site of The Humane Society of the United States.]
AYN RAND AS LITERARY MENTOR, pp. 105-10
Erika Holzer's is a collection of essays about Holzer's mentor-protege relationship with Rand. Written as a memoir, it is also a how-to-book on writing (fiction and nonfiction) which takes as its point of departure the personal advice Holzer received from Rand in her early years as a writer. The primary interest of the book lies in Holzer's account of her efforts to put this advice into practice, especially her struggle to learn from Rand while developing her own voice and vision.
REPLY TO FRED SEDDON: RAND AND EMPIRICAL RESPONSIBILITY, pp. 111-19
Responding to Fred Seddon's review of his book, Ayn Rand Contra Human Nature, Nyquist defends his view that Rand failed to provide evidence for her view of man. Using evidence compiled by cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, and evolutionary psychologists, Nyquist challenges not only Rand's view of man, but also her epistemology, particularly her overestimation of the role of logic in efficacious thinking.
REJOINDER TO GREG NYQUIST: NYQUIST CONTRA RAND, PART II, pp. 121-22
Seddon echoes comments he made in his original Spring 2003 review of Greg Nyquist's book, . He argues that Nyquist's reply still does not grasp fully the Objectivist view of logic and the role of induction.
REPLY TO RODERICK T. LONG: THE 'GROTESQUE' DICHOTOMIES STILL UNBEAUTIFIED, pp. 123-42
This essay strongly affirms, rather than denies, continuity of reference across theory change, while reconciling this with other claims made in the book , and in addition defends the book's claim that all non-disjunctive qualities common to the paradigms are essential to a kind, discusses its arguments against truth by convention, and denies that its attempt to show Newton's axioms necessary is a priori, rejecting the a priori altogether.
REJOINDER TO GREGORY M. BROWNE: A BEAUTY CONTEST FOR DICHOTOMIES: BROWNE'S TERMINOLOGICAL REVOLUTIONS, pp. 143-62
While regarding Gregory M. Browne as mainly on target in his Rand-inspired treatment of reference and necessity, as well as in his rejection of the analytic-synthetic dichotomy, Long argues, first, that Browne is mistaken in rejecting some other vital distinctions, such as the a priori / a posteriori distinction; second, that Browne is nevertheless implicitly committed, under different terminology, to these very distinctions that he purportedly rejects; and third, that Browne's treatment of kinds and definitions leads him to misdescribe and misprescribe ordinary language use, and also to embrace unnecessary semantic incommensurability.
A discussion of various issues raised by Ayn Rand’s ethics.
This issue is dedicated to the memory of R. W. Bradford, Joan Kennedy Taylor, and Christopher Ronald Tame
BILL BRADFORD, AYN RAND, AND CONEY ISLAND, pp. 251-54
This essay offers a tribute to R. W. Bradford, one of the founding co-editors of , who passed away on 8 December 2005. It also marks the passing of two other writers who have contributed to Rand studies: Joan Kennedy Taylor and Chris Tame.
REPLY TO DOUGLAS B. RASMUSSEN AND ERIC MACK: RAND AND CHOICE, pp. 257-73
Rand's metaethical objectivism consists not in the intrinsicist view that values lie outside of us, in an independent reality such that we can identify them or fail to do so. Rather, Rand's conception of "objectivity" regarding the foundation of ethics is what is often called "agent-relative" but not subjective. Or, as Rand states, ethical claims are "objectively conditional" (in her essay "Causality versus Duty"). In elaborating this perspective, Machan shows that it suffices to avoid the dreaded charge of subjectivism contained in both Rasmussen's and Mack's discussion of her views.
REPLY TO ERIC MACK: DID AYN RAND DO THE SHUFFLE?, pp. 275-86
This paper criticizes Eric Mack's contention that Rand engaged in a "shuffle," focusing on the core issue of how Rand moved from her metaethical argument that, because existence or non-existence is every organism's fundamental alternative, the standard of value for each organism is its life, to her ethical prescription that each person live as "man qua man," given that continued existence often requires so much less. Bubb argues that Rand did not engage in a "shuffle," but was instead operating on the basis of premises implicit in the theme of and in her other writings.
REJOINDER TO TIBOR R. MACHAN AND FRANK BUBB: MORE PROBLEMATIC ARGUMENTS IN RANDIAN ETHICS, pp. 287-307
Frank Bubb and Tibor Machan raise objections to Mack's "Problematic Arguments in Randian Ethics." Bubb argues that a universalization test allows Rand to condemn every parasitic action---even ones that serve the agent's survival. But this universalization test is faulty; it calls upon individuals to act as would be rational if the world were not as it is. Machan argues that Rand can hold that the fundamental choice between life and death is ungrounded without being a subjectivist. But Machan does not successfully differentiate the putatively ungrounded choice between life and death from other choices that he admits are arbitrary.
REJOINDER TO TIBOR R. MACHAN: REGARDING CHOICE AND THE FOUNDATION FOR MORALITY: REFLECTIONS ON RAND'S ETHICS, pp. 309-28
This essay examines the relationship between human choice and Rand's ethical standard for moral goodness and obligation. It shows that the neo-Aristotelian interpretation of Rand's ethics---an interpretation that does not accept the doctrine of "premoral choice" but instead claims that flourishing as a rational animal is the telos of human life and choice---is crucial to the viability of her ethical theory. The defenders of premoral choice confuse the conceptual order with the real and, despite their intentions, make Rand's ethics into a voluntarist ethics, that is, an ethics in which reason is subordinate to will.
EGOISM VERSUS RIGHTS, pp. 329-49
Rand's commitments to egoism and to libertarian rights are meant at least to be well-suited to fit together as parts of a comprehensive moral and political theory. After examining and rejecting arguments that ethical egoism is presupposed by libertarian rights, Bass develops an argument that the two theses are incompatible, that if egoism is true, then there are no rights, and that if there are rights, then egoism is not true. Then, he considers and responds to objections, and concludes with a challenge for theorists still inclined to suppose that the two are compatible.
REPLY TO ROBERT H. BASS: EGOISM AND RIGHTS, pp. 351-56
Robert H. Bass's proposed opposition between egoism and rights misses its mark insofar as it targets Rand's egoism. Rand's egoism is not consequentialist. Her egoism falls into the "moralized interest" camp, meaning that her understanding of egoism presupposes other moral concepts. There are sound reasons for calling her ethics egoistic based on the characteristics of her ethics. Far from being separate poles of moral thought, her egoism and her rights theory express a unitary moral principle centering around the requirements of man's life qua man.
REPLY TO ROBERT H. BASS: ALTRUISM IN AUGUSTE COMTE AND AYN RAND, pp. 357-69
In response to Robert H. Bass's charge that no significant moral thinker ever advocated altruism as Ayn Rand defined it, Campbell points to the writings of Auguste Comte, who invented the word. For Comte, altruism meant living for others, repressing one's "personality," and subordinating oneself to "the Great Being, Humanity." Rand's own conception of altruism was thoroughly Comtean. What's more, her decision (made in 1942, while completing ) to use "altruism" as her primary term for the moral tendencies that she opposed was plausibly occasioned by an encounter with Comte's ideas.
REJOINDER TO CHRIS CATHCART AND ROBERT L. CAMPBELL: DEFENDING THE ARGUMENT, pp. 371-81
Robert L. Campbell and Chris Cathcart offer several objections to Bass's essay, "Egoism versus Rights." In response to Campbell, Bass argues that no adequate reason has been given for defining "altruism" in the way that Rand did, since that formulation does not accurately describe most altruists. In response to Cathcart, Bass argues that since Cathcart accepts the incompatibility of rights and consequentialism, the question of the compatibility of rights and egoism turns out to be the question of whether egoism can be non-consequentialist. Bass argues that it cannot. Thus, neither reply succeeds in overturning Bass's central arguments.
OMISSIONS AND MEASUREMENT, pp. 383-405
Ayn Rand said that measurement omission is an essential part of concept formation. This essay argues that something else is omitted much, even most, of the time. The nature of measurement is explored in order to support the argument. The author agrees with Rand's more general claim that concepts are grounded in similarities and differences. However, he argues that her theory is partly flawed in claiming that all differences between similar existents are ones of measurement.
IMAGE AND INTEGRATION IN AYN RAND'S DESCRIPTIVE STYLE, pp. 407-19
Saint-Andre diverts attention from the ideological content of Ayn Rand's novels to focus on their sometimes startling literary qualities. In particular, Saint-Andre analyses Rand's use of traditional stylistic and rhetorical devices (metaphor, simile, word choice, assonance, alliteration) and examines the integration of certain passages of pure description into the broader themes of Rand's novels , , and .
$ AND α : ATLAS SHRUGGED AND QUO VADIS, pp. 421-27
Henryk Sienkiewicz's book was named by Ayn Rand as one of the great novels in the Romantic style. Its account of the early Christian movement in the time of Nero parallels the story of the strikers in the time of the "looters" in . This essay contends that Rand intended to improve upon Sienkiewicz's version by giving her small band the proper values. This claim is supported by numerous similarities between the two novels, particularly between the Christian fish-symbol and the sign of the dollar.
SZASZ AND RAND, pp. 429-44
This review essay on Thomas Szasz's book elaborates Szasz's position that mental illness is a myth, psychiatry is pseudo-medicine, and imposed psychiatric treatments are assaults and incarcerations. It then describes Szasz's critical chapters on Ayn Rand's and Nathaniel Branden's views on psychiatry, mental health, and psychiatric coercion.
HICKS VERSUS POSTMODERNISM, pp. 445-57
In his compact and erudite but lucid and skillfully argued volume, , Stephen Hicks traces the history of postmodernist commitment to relativistic nihilism from its origins in Kant and Rousseau up through Fichte and Heidegger to Derrida, Foucault, Lyotard and Rorty. That done, Hicks goes on to show how the anticapitalist left has responded to the spectacular failures of socialist practice and theory by abandoning the scientistic objectivism of Marx while embracing postmodernist irrationalism, multiculturalism, and extremist rhetoric. It is a fine performance.
CAPITALISM AND COMMERCE, pp. 459-71
Edward W. Younkins's book, , develops a systematic case for a free enterprise model that restricts state activity to a few clearly enumerated functions. He sets out the ideas of individual rights and property ownership, moving from here to freedom of transaction under the rule of law. He considers entrepreneurship and progress. Finally he discusses the various opponents of free enterprise and responds, concluding with a meditation on the prospects of bringing about the kind of society envisioned here.
QUESTIONS ABOUT ANSWERS, pp. 473-82
Brown reviews , a volume edited by Robert Mayhew that collects many of Rand's off-the-cuff responses to the questions that followed her public talks. After surveying the book's generous sampling on topics ranging from politics to aesthetics, Brown suggests that some of Mayhew's editorial choices impair the reader's ability to fairly assess both Rand's public temperament and some of her opinions.
Susan Love Brown is interim director of the Ph.D. in Comparative Studies, associate professor of anthropology, and a women's studies faculty associate at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton. She is the co-author of (2000) and the editor of (2002). As a political and psychological anthropologist, her research involves the cultural origins of ideology (especially American individualist anarchism), social evolution, intentional communities, gender and ethnicity, and popular culture. Her article, "Ayn Rand: The Woman Who Would Not Be President," appeared in (1999), edited by Mimi Reisel Gladstein and Chris Matthew Sciabarra.
Gregory M. Browne is an Instructor at Eastern Michigan University and sometimes other Michigan colleges, is the author of (University Press of America, 2001), which presents, elaborates and advocates a position similar to that of Leonard Peikoff in "The Analytic-Synthetic Dichotomy." He has also written "Future Contingents" (unpublished). He has a B.A. in an interdisciplinary social sciences program and in political science (1979), an M.A. in political science (1984), and an M.A. (1988) and Ph.D. (1994) in philosophy, from Michigan State University.
Marc Champagne is a philosopher completing a doctorate in semiotics at the University of Quebec in Montreal. Recipient of the 2003 Ian Bailey award for interdisciplinarity, he is currently adjunct-researcher at the Canada Research Chair in the Theory of Knowledge and a past member of the Peirce-Wittgenstein Research Group (which is preparing volume 7 of the Writings of Charles S. Peirce).
Algirdas Degutis is a Senior Fellow at the Culture, Philosophy and Arts Research Institute (Vilnius, Lithuania). He is the author of three books, including (1984), (1998), and of numerous articles on philosophy of language and political philosophy. He has translated into Lithuanian some major works of classical liberalism and libertarianism, including those by John Locke, Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman, and Robert Nozick.
David Graham is an independent scholar living in Sacramento, California. He graduated summa cum laude from California State University, Sacramento, with degrees in English and philosophy. His writing, which focuses on libertarianism and animal rights, has been published on and .
Roderick T. Long is an Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, 6080 Haley Center, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, A.B. Harvard 1985, Ph.D. Cornell 1992. He is the author of (The Objectivist Center, 2000) and (forthcoming, Routledge, 2007). He edits ; runs a fledgling think tank, the Molinari Institute; blogs at Austro-Athenian Empire; and is currently engaged in translating some of the works of Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912), the originator of free-market anarchism. He is a co-editor of .
Kirsti Minsaas is a senior lecturer in English literature at the University of Oslo, Norway. In addition to works on Shakespeare and Aristotle's Poetics, she has published several articles on Ayn Rand's literature and aesthetic theory. Her most recent contributions to Rand criticism are included in (The Objectivist Center, 2005). She is currently working on a monograph dealing with the heroic vision of Rand's fiction.
Nathan Nobis, Department of Philosophy and Religion, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia. He has teaching and research interests that include ethical theory, epistemology, critical thinking and practical ethics, especially ethics and animals.
Greg Nyquist is a writer on philosophy and economics. His books include and the forthcoming . He has published numerous economic articles for and at . Currently, he is an assistant editor at and a media consultant for Nyquist Media Group, with which he collaborated on the documentary .
Fred Seddon currently holds adjunct professorships at three universities in South Western Pennsylvania. He has been president of the West Virginia Philosophical Society since 1988 and is an associate member of the Center for the Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh. He is an international scholar and the author of over 100 books, articles, book reviews and speeches, including such works as , , and .
Steven H. Shmurak, Ph.D. is a clinical psychologist who has been in private practice for 27 years. He holds degrees from Swarthmore College, Harvard University and Indiana University. He became interested in Objectivism in 1962 and attended lectures at the Nathaniel Branden Institute in New York for several years. In 1997, he began to study the work of Silvan Tomkins. He is a co-author of (1999) and (2000), curriculum guides to Tomkins's work published by The Silvan S. Tomkins Institute.
Robert H. Bass is an Assistant Professor, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, South Carolina 29528, who received his Ph.D. for his dissertation, . He has published in political philosophy, intellectual history and ethics, and has been a frequent watcher and sometimes participant in online discussions of Objectivism. His current research centers upon the relation of virtue ethics to politics and to our treatment of animals.
David M. Brown is a freelance writer and editor, and the publisher of , a general-interest Internet magazine. His clients have included Laissez Faire Books, U.S. Term Limits, Rasmussen Reports, Americans for Limited Government, the Cato Institute, Tibor R. Machan, and others.
Frank Bubb is a Trustee of The Objectivist Center and a retired corporate attorney. A graduate of Washington University with a B.A. in economics (1969) and the University of Pennsylvania Law School (1972), he was an attorney for Scott Paper Company for 20 years until its sale in 1995, specializing in securities, corporate finance, employee benefits and occupational safety and health. From 1996 to 2003, he was General Counsel of The Sports Authority, and retired when the company was sold in 2003. During the 1980s, he wrote over 60 op-ed articles that appeared in newspapers around the country, distributed by The Cato Institute or authored directly for and , and wrote for . He has also written for and its predecessor publication, .
Robert L. Campbell, Department of Psychology, 410A Brackett Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-1355, USA, is the author of three published essays on moral development, an article on the development of the self, and a forthcoming chapter on the significance of Eddie Willers in . He edited and translated Jean Piaget's book (Psychology Press, 2001) and edits .
Chris Cathcart received an M.A. in Philosophy from Bowling Green State University in 2000.
Max Hocutt specialized in the philosophy of psychology, then moral theory, before retiring in 2001 from the University of Alabama. In addition to editing for six years, he published three books and over 60 articles in learned journals. Since retiring, he has contributed to three encyclopedias, written half a dozen essays for the and the , and reviewed over a dozen books for . His last book was (Transaction, 2000).
Merlin Jetton is an investment actuary (retired), has a B.S. in math, is a Fellow of the Society of Actuaries and a Chartered Financial Analyst. He has published articles in professional journals and periodicals, and several in the philosophy journal .
TIBOR R. MACHAN
Kurt Keefner is a nontraditional scholar interested in philosophy and the arts. He has written extensively for online publications such as and . He lives with his wife in Greenbelt, Maryland.
Tibor R. Machan is R. C. Hoiles Professor of Business Ethics and Free Enterprise at the Argyros School of Business & Economics, Chapman University, Orange, CA 29866. His most recent book is (Ashgate, 2004).
Eric Mack, Tulane University, Department of Philosophy, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, is a Professor of Philosophy and also a faculty member of Tulane's Murphy Institute of Political Economy. He has published and lectured widely on topics in moral, political, and legal philosophy. Among his forthcoming essays are: "Non-Absolute Rights and Libertarian Taxation," in ; "Hayek on Justice and the Order of Actions," in (Cambridge University Press); and "Individualism and Libertarian Rights," in  (Blackwell Press).
Douglas B. Rasmussen, Professor of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, New York 11439. He is coauthor (with Douglas J. Den Uyl) of (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005).
Sheldon Richman Editor of (Foundation for Economic Education); senior fellow, Future of Freedom Foundation; and research fellow, Independent Institute. He maintains the blog Free Association. He is the author of , , and (all published by The Future of Freedom Foundation). His articles have appeared in , , , , , , , , and other magazines and newspapers.
Peter Saint-Andre is an independent scholar living in Denver, Colorado. When not working as Executive Director of the Jabber Software Foundation, he is also active as a poet, musician, translator, and essayist.
Chris Matthew Sciabarra is a Visiting Scholar, Department of Politics, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th floor, New York, New York 10003. He received his Ph.D., with distinction, in political theory, philosophy, and methodology from New York University. He is the author of the “Dialectics and Liberty Trilogy,” which includes Marx, Hayek, and Utopia (State University of New York Press, 1995), Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), and Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). He is also coeditor, with Mimi Reisel Gladstein, of Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999), and a founding coeditor of (1999–present).
Steven Yates, Adjunct Instructor, Philosophy, University of South Carolina-Upstate and Greenville Technical College, 3500 Pelham Rd., #216, Greenville, South Carolina 29615. He is the author of (ICS Press, 1994), (Worldviews Project, 2005) and (undergoing revisions). He has written over twenty articles and reviews for refereed academic journals and over a hundred articles for commentary sites on the World Wide Web, especially LewRockwell.com and NewsWithViews.com.