REASON, EMOTION, AND THE IMPORTANCE OF PHILOSOPHY, pp. 1-23
Davis uses his theory of happiness to clarify and deepen Rand's theory of emotion. He distinguishes belief from knowledge, volitive from appetitive desire, and occurrent thinking from believing. He suggests that values in Rand's sense are things we volitively desire. Happiness is defined in terms of the sum of the products of the degree of belief and (volitive) desire functions over all thoughts. Davis then evaluates such Randian maxims as that happiness cannot be achieved by the pursuit of irrational whims, and that emotions are not tools of cognition, but products of one's premises---one's philosophy.
IF "EMOTIONS ARE NOT TOOLS OF COGNITION," WHAT ARE THEY? AN EXPLORATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REASON AND EMOTION, pp. 25-67
The author discusses the commonly accepted view in Objectivism that "emotions are not tools of cognition," i.e., that one cannot and should not use emotions in one's reasoning process. Ayn Rand's views on emotions are extensively examined and evaluated in light of common experience and current scientific evidence. The author draws on neuropsychological as well as other scientific evidence to more precisely define the relation between reason and emotion, and she examines Rand's premises in light of the evidence.
RAND ON OBLIGATION AND VALUE, pp. 69-86
Rasmussen examines, in this revised and extended version of his 1990 address to the Ayn Rand Society, whether Rand's ethics are best interpreted as dependent on a "pre-moral" choice. He argues that such an interpretation undercuts Rand's claim to provide a rational foundation for ethics. He suggests an alternative, neo-Aristotelian interpretation of Rand's ethics, which treats "man's survival qua man" as the telos of human choice and takes the obligation to achieve this ultimate end as the result of its being the good for human beings.
A REVIVAL OF THE ANCIENT TRADITION IN ETHICS: ARISTOTLE VERSUS RAND, pp. 87-122
Walsh argues that, despite Rand's affection for Aristotle, her ethics is more in the modern, rather than the Aristotelian, tradition. Aristotle's was never intended as a prescriptive normative treatise; rather, it offered an ontology of human excellence. Viewing that work through modern assumptions, Rand and others have misinterpreted its significance. A comparison of Aristotelian and Randian notions of happiness shows that the former is more philosophically profound than the latter.
CONCEPTUALISM IN ABELARD AND RAND, pp. 123-40
The author provides textual evidence that calls into question Ayn Rand's characterization of conceptualism as simply a kind of nominalism, as well as her claim that her theory of knowledge is a sui generis "Objectivism" rather than a form of conceptualism.
THE LIBERTARIAN MINIMAL STATE?: A CRITIQUE OF THE VIEWS OF NOZICK, LEVIN, AND RAND, pp. 141-60
Block discusses publications by Robert Nozick, the unjustifiably ignored Michael Levin, and Ayn Rand, each of whom has criticized anarcho-capitalism, the system that takes laissez-faire capitalism to its logical extension: here, all goods and services, particularly including courts, police, and armies would be provided by competing private firms and individuals. This paper considers their arguments (for Nozick, that anarcho-capitalism would naturally evolve into minarchism or limited government free enterprise without violating the libertarian nonaggression axiom; for Levin, that the philosophy of Hobbes is correct and requires a government for protection; for Rand, that anarcho-capitalism is incoherent) and rejects them.
AYN RAND IN THE SCHOLARLY LITERATURE II: RAND, RUSH, AND ROCK, pp. 161-85
Sciabarra surveys discussions of Ayn Rand in the literature on Progressive rock music. He examines critically Edward Macan's , Paul Stump's , Carol Selby Price and Robert M. Price's , Bill Martin's (1998), and Durrell S. Bowman's essay on the rock band Rush in Kevin Holm-Hudson's . He argues that the authors show varying degrees of understanding of Rand's brand of "redemptive politics." [html version available]
A NEGLECTED SOURCE FOR RAND'S AESTHETICS, pp. 187-204
Bissell reviews the full-length, taped version of Rand's "The Esthetic Vacuum of Our Age," calling attention to its importance as a foundational document for Rand's later essays on art and to the numerous gems omitted from the much briefer published version.
REPLY TO WILLIAM DWYER: COMPATIBILISM AND EVOLUTION, pp. 205-13
Lyons criticizes as essentially rationalistic both the Objectivist concept of free will in Tibor Machan's , and William Dwyer's ( , Fall 2001) in the compatibilist tradition derived from Hobbes. He draws attention to the general problem of compatibilism in modern philosophy. He focuses on how such scientific theorists as Daniel C. Dennett have gone beyond the ideas of Hobbes, in considering the complexities of action in evolutionary processes discovered by Darwin.
REPLY TO WILLIAM DWYER: FREE WILL RECONSIDERED, pp. 215-20
Machan argues that William Dwyer's review of his book, ( , Fall 2001), assumes that compatibilism is coherent. Machan argues that compatibilism is simply hard determinism with some soft edges but as such it is not coherent. In light of this, the agent-causation-based thesis of human initiative (or freedom of the human will) that Machan defends is superior to its alternatives.
REJOINDER TO GEORGE LYONS AND TIBOR R. MACHAN: FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM, pp. 221-30
Dwyer responds to the comments of George Lyons and Tibor R. Machan on his review of Machan's ( , Fall 2001). Dwyer reiterates points in his initial review, stressing the need to understand choice within a larger causal context.
REPLY TO LELAND B. YEAGER: RHETORICAL INCORRECTNESS?, pp. 231-34
James Arnt Aune responds to Leland B. Yeager's criticisms of "Economic Incorrectness," , Fall 2001). Yeager fails to understand that the art of rhetoric is more than a matter of persuasive "tricks." Aune compares radical libertarians to Chomsky-style leftists as ideologues and America-haters and expresses regret that Yeager did not respond either to specific arguments against Rand's work or to the analysis of specific aspects of libertarian policy rhetoric.
REJOINDER TO JAMES ARNT AUNE: ON "RHETORICAL INCORRECTNESS?", p. 235
Yeager replies to James Arnt Aune's good-natured response to his review of , which appeared in the Fall 2001 issue of .
REPLY TO JONATHAN JACOBS: CONTESTING A REVIEW, pp. 237-39
Kelley responds to Jonathan Jacobs' review of his ("A Contest of Wills,") , Spring 2002). He argues that his goal was not to provide a technical treatise on Objectivism, but to focus on a debate within Objectivism. Toward the former end, he provides a brief bibliography of relevant technical treatments of Objectivist epistemology and ethics.
This issue is dedicated to the memory of Don Lavoie, Robert Nozick, Jack Schwartzman, and George Walsh---all scholars who have written on Ayn Rand.
THE ACTUALITY OF AYN RAND, pp. 215-27
Zizek argues that Rand's fascination for male figures displaying absolute, unswayable determination of their Will, seems to offer the best imaginable confirmation of Sylvia Plath's famous line, "every woman adores a Fascist." But the properly subversive dimension of Rand's ideological procedure is not to be underestimated: Rand fits into the line of 'overconformist' authors who undermine the ruling ideological edifice by their very excessive identification with it. Her over-orthodoxy was directed at capitalism itself; for Rand, the truly heretic thing today is to embrace the basic premise of capitalism without its sugar-coating.
THE TRICKSTER ICON AND OBJECTIVISM, pp. 229-58
Maurone examines the Trickster---that mischievous character who challenges conventional boundaries and distinctions and who plays a crucial role in much of the world's mythology and folklore. Maurone rereads the fiction and life of Ayn Rand as an expression of the Trickster's quest to invert traditional mores. Using the insights of writers as diverse as Lewis Hyde, Carl Jung, Carl Kerenyi, and Percy Bysshe Shelley, Maurone examines Promethean and other Trickster archetypes in Rand's work. He views Rand herself as the real-life Trickster incarnate; her personal failings provide an opportunity for post-Randian thinkers to move Objectivism beyond its residual dogmatism.
IS BENEVOLENT EGOISM COHERENT?, 259-88
Huemer argues that there is a tension between two principles putatively essential to Rand's ethics: the principle of egoism, which states that the only reason for doing (or not doing) anything is that it will serve (or frustrate) one's own interests; and the principle that one must not sacrifice others. Huemer considers several arguments that Rand offers for the second principle but finds that each involves either implausible empirical assumptions or assumptions that conflict with egoism. Huemer suggests that Rand may not be an egoist in the usual sense; her positions are much more consistent with the second principle.
GOALS, VALUES, AND THE IMPLICIT: EXPLORATIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL ONTOLOGY, pp. 289-327
Campbell examines Ayn Rand's handling of the distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge. Using interactivist developmental psychology, he shows how human knowledge and goals develop through a hierarchy of knowing levels, and elaborates a significant differentiation between what is subconsciously known or believed and what is merely implied. He applies these distinctions to three problem areas in Rand's treatment of the implicit: the notion of a "pre-moral" choice to live, the peculiar status of implicit concepts, and Rand's ambivalence as to whether skills constitute knowledge.
A CONTEST OF WILLS, pp. 329-37
Jacobs reviews , in which David Kelley responds to Objectivists who refuse to dialogue with libertarians, and examines the debate among Objectivists over the interpretation of Rand's thinking. Kelley argues that Rand presents crucial insights and claims and that these need to be developed and elaborated and not viewed as a fixed doctrine. Jacobs focuses on where Kelley situates himself among Objectivists, and raises critical concerns about the effectiveness with which Rand's philosophy is articulated and defended. He questions how effectively Objectivism enters into philosophical debates to which it claims to contribute.
HAVING YOUR SAY, pp. 339-47
Cox assesses the newly published edition of Ayn Rand's 1969 lectures on nonfiction writing ( ). The lectures are an effective exposition of Rand's recommended authorial method, with strong emphasis on the author's use of the subconscious mind.
REPLY TO KIRSTI MINSAAS: ON THE AYN RAND CLIFFSNOTES, p. 349
Bernstein replies to Kirsti Minsaas' review of his CliffsNotes to , , and ( , Fall 2001). He defends the literary and philosophical merit of the works.
REPLY TO RODERICK LONG: MISTAKEN IDENTITY: LONG'S CONFLATION OF DIALECTICS AND ORGANICISM, pp. 351-57
Bissell argues that, contrary to Roderick Long's claim ( , Spring 2001) that Chris Sciabarra has failed to sufficiently distance himself from internalism, Sciabarra has maintained a consistent position throughout his various works, and that Long has simply failed to read Sciabarra carefully enough. Drawing upon the works of Stephen C. Pepper, Bissell suggests that Long has fallen prey to the tendency to confuse methodological orientations with ontological or cosmological models of reality, and that his inaccurate characterization of dialectics is more accurately applied to strict organicism, the real opponent of Long's analytic Formism.
REPLY TO RODERICK LONG: DIALECTICS: A RECONSTRUCTION, pp. 359-80
Register discusses Sciabarra's ontological commitments, the nature of the cognitive ideal for social science from a pluralistic libertarian point of view, and the proper realm of dialectical investigation. He responds to Long's incisive critique (in , Spring 2001) of Sciabarra's notion of dialectic by analytic clarifying that notion so that it takes a form more acceptable to mainstream Anglo-American philosophers.
REPLY TO RODERICK LONG: DIALECTICAL LIBERTARIANISM: ALL BENEFITS, NO HAZARDS, pp. 381-99
Sciabarra responds to Roderick Long's review ( , Spring 2001) of his . Sciabarra argues that the dialectical stress upon context-keeping encompasses both analytic and synthetic activities. He defends his interpretations of Aristotle, Marx, Rothbard, and internal relations, and presents a radical dialectical libertarian alternative---a conception of freedom that is not merely political or economic but also psycho-epistemological, ethical, and cultural. [html version also available]
REJOINDER TO BISSELL, REGISTER, AND SCIABARRA: KEEPING CONTEXT IN CONTEXT: THE LIMITS OF DIALECTICS, pp. 401-22
Long defends his criticisms (in "The Benefits and Hazards of Dialectical Libertarianism," , Spring 2001) of Chris Sciabarra's theory of dialectics. Long argues, against Sciabarra and Roger Bissell, that embracing dialectics as a general methodology commits one to an internalist ontology; and he argues, against Bryan Register, that an internalist ontology is indefensible. Long concludes, however, that dialectics is still an indispensable methodological tool, so long as its scope is not exaggerated.
ROGER E. BISSELL
James Arnt Aune is an Associate Professor, Department of Speech Communication, 102 Bolton Hall, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4234. He is a member of the Program in Presidential Rhetoric at the George Bush School of Government and Public Affairs. He is the author of the books (Westview Press, 1994) and (Guilford Press, 2001), as well as a number of scholarly articles on the history of rhetoric and on public controversy over legal and economic issues.
Roger E. Bissell is a professional musician and graduate student at California Coast University. He is also a writer on psychology and philosophy. His work has appeared in a number of publications, including , , , , and . He is currently working on a scholarly monograph on the Objectivist view of art as "microcosm."
WAYNE A. DAVIS
Walter Block is the Harold E. Wirth Eminent Scholar Endowed Chair in Economics at Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118. He is also Adjunct Scholar at the Mises Institute and at the Hoover Institution. He has previously taught at the University of Central Arkansas, Holy Cross College, Baruch (C.U.N.Y.) and Rutgers Universities, and has worked in various research capacities for the Fraser Institute, the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Tax Foundation, , and magazine. Having earned his Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University, he has published numerous popular and scholarly articles on economics. An economic commentator on national television and radio, he lectures widely on public policy issues to university students, service, professional and religious organizations. He is the editor of a dozen books and is the author of seven more (the most famous of which is ). He has served as editor for , , , , , and . He has contributed over 160 articles and reviews to these and other refereed journals. He was converted to libertarianism by Nathaniel Branden and Ayn Rand, whom he first met when the latter lectured at Brooklyn College, where he was an undergraduate.
Wayne A. Davis is a Professor and Chair, Philosophy Department, Georgetown University, Washington, D. C. 20057, and received his Ph.D. from Princeton in 1977. He previously taught at UCLA, Rice, and Washington University. He is the author of (Prentice-Hall, 1986), (Cambridge, 1998), (Cambridge, 2003) and articles on logic, philosophy of science, philosophical psychology, and philosophy of language in , , , and other journals. Editorial board member: .
MARHSA FAMILARO ENRIGHT
William Dwyer, 26119 Parkside Drive, Hayward, California 94542, earned his B.A. in Philosophy from University of California, Berkeley, in 1973. 's early contributions to Rand scholarship were among the first to be featured in a philosophical journal: . These include such published articles as: "The Contradiction of 'The Contradiction of Determinism'" (Winter 1972); "A Reply to David Bold" (Summer 1973); "The Argument against 'An Objective Standard of Value'" (Spring 1974); "Criticisms of Egoism" (Spring 1975); and "Egoism and Renewed Hostilities" (Summer 1976). Dwyer is currently working towards a Masters in Economics at California State University at Hayward.
Marsha Familaro Enright, 9400 S. Damen Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60620-5637, B.A. Biology, Northwestern University, M.A. Psychology, The New School for Social Research. She is a writer, educator and psychotherapist. She has been involved in the following educational and social organizations: The New Intellectual Forum (founder and club leader since 1987), Council Oak Montessori Elementary School (founder and Executive Director since 1990), The Fountainhead Institute (founder and lead instructor since 1999) and Camp Indecon (curriculum developer and instructor since 1998). She has written on many psychological and educational topics, including two articles for : "Why Man Needs Approval" and : On the Evolutionary Neuropsychology of Music." She lectures frequently at the Summer Seminar of The Objectivist Center and elsewhere. Her interests are wide-ranging but always take a psychological bent.
TIBOR R. MACHAN
David Kelley is the Executive Director, The Objectivist Center, 11 Raymond Avenue, Suite 31, Poughkeepsie, New York 12603. He is the author of , , , and numerous other articles, monographs, and reviews.
DOUGLAS B. RASMUSSEN
Tibor R. Machan is the Distinguished Fellow and Professor at the Leatherby Center of Chapman University, Argyros School of Business and Economics, Orange, California 92866. He is also Professor Emeritus at Auburn University's Department of Philosophy and Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution (Stanford, California). He has written, among other works, (Peter Lang, 1999), (Cato Institute, 1998), and (Routledge, 1998). He is editor of the series "Philosophic Reflections on a Free Society" at the Hoover Institution Press.
Douglas B. Rasmussen, Professor of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, New York 11439, received his doctorate from Marquette University in 1980. In his dissertation, "Logical Possibility and Necessary Truth: The Viewpoint from an Intentional Logic," he argued against logico-linguistic accounts of necessary truth and in favor of a neo-Aristotelian account of natural necessity. This work integrated the insights of Henry B. Veatch, H. W. B. Joseph, and E. H. Madden with themes from Ayn Rand's . He is coeditor with Douglas Den Uyl of (University of Illinois Press, 1984) and with Tibor Machan of (Roman & Littlefield, 1995). He is coauthor with James Sterba of (Social Philosophy and Policy Center and Transaction Books, 1987) and with Douglas Den Uyl of (Open Court, 1991) and (Edward Elgar, 1997). He was also guest editor of the January 1992 issue of , on the topic "Teleology and the Foundation of Value." Rasmussen has published over eighty articles in various professional journals and books dealing with issues in epistemology, philosophy of language and logic, ethics, and political philosophy. A teacher of philosophy for nearly twenty-five years, he is currently coauthoring a book in political philosophy, tentatively titled, , and providing a forward and annotated bibliography for the Liberty Fund Press publication of Henry B. Veatch's classic, .
CHRIS MATTHEW SCIABARRA
Peter Saint-Andre received a B.A. in philosophy and classics from Columbia University but now works full-time on Jabber, an open-source Internet infrastructure project. He is active as a poet, musician, translator, and essayist. He edits a literary webzine and has published a well-regarded online dictionary of philosophy. His essays have appeared in , , , , and .
Chris Matthew Sciabarra received his Ph.D., with distinction, in political theory, philosophy, and methodology from New York University. He is the author of the “Dialectics and Liberty Trilogy,” which includes Marx, Hayek, and Utopia (State University of New York Press, 1995), Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), and Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). He is also coeditor, with Mimi Reisel Gladstein, of Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999), and a founding coeditor of (1999–present). His articles and letters on popular culture and music have appeared in publications as diverse as the , , ,
ROGER E. BISSELL
Andrew Bernstein, The Ayn Rand Institute, 4640 Admiralty Way, Suite 406, Marina del Rey, California 90292, holds a Ph.D. in philosophy from the Graduate School of the City University of New York. He teaches philosophy at Pace University, the State University of New York at Purchase, and formerly at Marymount College in Tarrytown, New York---which presented him its "Outstanding Teacher" award in 1995. He has also lectured at Hunter College, Long Island University, the New School for Social Research, and has given addresses at Harvard, Stanford, Northwestern, Chicago, Michigan, Wisconsin, Columbia, and the United States Military Academy at West Point. His first novel, , was published in Fall 2001 by The Paper Tiger. Dr. Bernstein's articles have also appeared in , , , , , , and . He is also the author of CliffsNotes for three Ayn Rand titles: , and , and of the forthcoming .
ROBERT L. CAMPBELL
Roger E. Bissell is a professional musician and graduate student in psychology at California Coast University. He is also a writer on psychology and philosophy. His work has appeared in a number of publications, including , , , , and .
Robert L. Campbell is a Professor, Department of Psychology, Clemson University, Brackett Hall 410A, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-1511. He has various research interests, including theories of human development, the development of moral personality, and the nature of free will, as well as the historical evolution of moral psychology.
Stephen Cox is a professor of Literature and Director of the Humanities Program at the University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0306. He is the author of (University of Pittsburgh Press), (University of Michigan Press), (Open Court), and the biographical introduction to Isabel Paterson's (Transaction).
Michael Huemer is an Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Philosophy Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0232. He received his Ph.D. from Rutgers University in 1998. His primary research is in the areas of epistemology and meta-ethics. He is the author of (Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).
RODERICK T. LONG
Jonathan Jacobs, Professor of Philosophy and Chair, Department of Philosophy and Religion, Colgate University, Hamilton, New York 13346. He has been a Visiting Professor at the University of Edinburgh and a Visiting Fellow at the Centre for Philosophy and Public Affairs at the University of St. Andrews. He is the author of numerous articles and of such books as (Georgetown, 1995), (Harcourt, 2001), and (Cornell, 2001).
Roderick T. Long is an Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, 6080 Haley Center, Auburn University, Auburn AL 36849, A.B. Harvard 1985, Ph.D. Cornell 1992. He is the author of (The Objectivist Center, 2000), and various articles on ethics, libertarianism, and Greek philosophy. Two book-length projects are currently in preparation: (an interpretation of Aristotle's theory of free will) and (a defense of a priori methodology in social science).
Joseph Maurone is an independent scholar, musician, and composer living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His primary research interests include music and literary theory, psychology, and popular culture.
CHRIS MATTHEW SCIABARRA
Bryan Register, Department of Philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1180, is a graduate student in the Special Program in Continental Philosophy of UT-Austin.
Chris Matthew Sciabarra Visiting Scholar, Department of Politics, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th floor, New York, New York 10003-6806. He received his Ph.D., with distinction, in political theory, philosophy, and methodology from New York University. He is the author of the “Dialectics and Liberty Trilogy,” which includes Marx, Hayek, and Utopia (State University of New York Press, 1995), Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), and Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). He is also coeditor, with Mimi Reisel Gladstein, of Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.)
Kulturwissenschaftliches Institut, Goethestrasse 31, 45128 Essen, Germany, Slavoj Zizek earned his Doctor of Arts (Philosophy, 1981) at the Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, Ljubljana; Doctor of Arts (psychoanalysis, 1985) at the Universite Paris-VIII. From April 2000, he has directed a research group at the Kulturwissenschaftliches Institut, Essen. Politically active in the alternative movement in Slovenia during the 1980s, he was a candidate for the presidency of the Republic of Slovenia in the first multi-party elections in 1990. He was also Ambassador of Science of the Republic of Slovenia in 1991. From 1997, he has regularly contributed to the feuilletons of German newspapers( , , ). His recent publications include (London: Verso, 1999); (London: Verso, 2000); (London: Verso, 2001); and (London: Routledge, 2001).