ON HUMAN CAPABILITY, pp. 1-27
The authors discuss the understanding of human capability posited by two elitist thinkers: Elliott Jaques and Ayn Rand. They review Rand's ideas in this area, present Jaques's contributions in his own field, and compare their approaches. They find that both view individuals' abilities to plan over time as a key discriminator.
REVIVAL OF OBJECTIVITY IN SCIENTIFIC METHOD, pp. 29-46
Fraedrich reviews recent developments in the field of scientific method and assesses their relevance for Objectivism. Objectivism differentiates between the concepts of proof and validation. The system exploits the use of "concepts" that are generally not proven, but subject to validation. While proof is accomplished by logical deduction, validation is accomplished by the application of the scientific method. Fraedrich concludes that Error Statistics-based inference is objective and that it meets the desiderata of a normative methodology for scientific inference---a necessary condition for inclusion in Objectivist philosophy.
POETRY AND HISTORY: THE TWO LEVELS OF NINETY THREE, pp. 47-69
Fram-Cohen argues that in her "Introduction to ," Rand uses Hugo's novel to demonstrate the disparity between literature and history, and the conflict between Romanticism and Naturalism. However, by dismissing the novel's historical aspects, Rand severs her perspective from a major source of the novel's greatness, and estranges herself from other favorable critics. In her reading of , Rand turns the Aristotelian distinction between poetry and history into a false alternative. Poetry and history actually complement each other in this novel; the Romanticism of can be greatly enhanced by its historical background.
TEACHING AYN RAND'S VERSION OF ETHICAL EGOISM, pp. 71-81
Machan explores how to present Rand's ethics in an introductory college course on moral philosophy. Despite their inclusion in some textbooks, Rand's ideas often get misrepresented. For example, James Rachels' work treats her as a subjective egoist, ignoring Rand's own focus on human nature and the individual's identity in the formulation of guidelines to personal conduct. In teaching Rand's ethical egoism, Machan examines several metaethical topics, including the nature of ethical knowledge, the challenges to such knowledge posed by Hume's and Moore's arguments, and a comparative analysis with conventionalism, naturalism, intuitionism, subjectivism, and rationalism.
DO KNOWLEDGE, ETHICS, AND LIBERTY REQUIRE FREE WILL?, pp. 83-108
Dwyer reviews , in which Tibor Machan argues that free will is a prerequisite for knowledge, ethics, and political liberty. Machan criticizes Hayek, Stigler, and "public choice" economics for their economic determinism and for discounting the importance of abstract ideas. Despite making a good case against environmental and economic determinism, Machan fails adequately to defend his central thesis that free will exists and that it is required for normative values.
INDIVIDUALIST ETHICS AND THE WELFARE STATE, pp. 109-15
The author expresses agreement with David Kelley's thesis in that the welfare state is not a good thing both for moral reasons and for its practical consequences. But the relationship between the moral and the political is more ambiguous than might first be imagined. The main questions explored are twofold: Is Kelley presupposing the truth of his own position in criticizing another and does this alter the presentation from argument to rhetoric?; and secondly, is Kelley's approach to the moral issue the only one that can be used to criticize the welfare state?
PORTER'S RAND: A COMMENTARY, pp. 117-24
Ray reviews Tom Porter's , a paragraph-by-paragraph annotation of Ayn Rand's . She finds that, while Porter's basic idea is a good one, the book suffers from a lack of internal coherence, citations, and editing.
CAN ACADEMICS LEARN FROM A MERE CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST?, pp. 125-43
Campbell views Nathaniel Branden's as an example of a popular book, written by a clinical practitioner, which nonetheless has many important implications for academic researchers. These include questions about: the correct theoretical understanding and successful measurement of self-esteem; the nature of free will; and the relationship between "cognitive" and "social" issues in psychological research.
ECONOMIC INCORRECTNESS, pp. 145-50
Yeager argues that James Arnt Aune, in , does not come to grips with the core case for capitalism. Though the author names without adequate explanation nearly twenty rhetorical tricks allegedly employed by champions of the free market, his narrow survey of procapitalist writings focuses on applied political philosophy rather than economics. Far from using rhetoric in an exemplary way, Aune engages in name-calling and imputes guilt by supposed association. This is particularly true in a chapter on Ayn Rand, where he diagnoses the supposed personality flaws of those who would take her writings seriously.
HOWTO GUIDE STUDENTS TO RAND'S FICTION, pp. 151-58
Minsaas reviews CliffsNotes to Ayn Rand's , , and , authored by Andrew Bernstein. Minsaas argues that there is little value in these guides, partly because of the restricted format of the CliffsNotes themselves. But she also takes issue with Bernstein's approach, which she believes is flawed by being more concerned with the philosophical than with the literary aspects of Rand's works and by a rigidly doctrinal Objectivism.
RECLAIMING RAND, pp. 159-64
Michalson reviews Mimi Reisel Gladstein's new volume in Twayne's Masterwork Studies Series, . Michalson reads Gladstein's study in terms of late twentieth-century gynocriticism and feminist re-examinations of the traditional literary canon. She observes that Gladstein is addressing Rand's exclusion from the feminist canon by using many of the same kinds of arguments feminist critics have developed to argue for the inclusion of lesser known women writers.
AYN RAND IN THE SCHOLARLY LITERATURE, pp. 165-69
The authors discuss references to Ayn Rand in the works of Paul Feyerabend and Slavojk.
A GUIDE TO RAND SCHOLARSHIP II, pp. 171-80
Stoloff provides the second installment of his ongoing "Guide to Rand Scholarship," which was inaugurated in in the Spring 2000 issue (volume 1, number 2). In this article, he concentrates on the international community, offering the most comprehensive list of foreign citations and translations relevant to Rand studies.
REPLY TO D. BARTON JOHNSON: NABOKOV AND RAND: KINDRED IDEOLOGICAL SPIRITS, DIVERGENT LITERARY AIMS, pp. 181-93
Bell-Villada argues that despite major differences in aesthetic, Nabokov and Rand share ideological attitudes resulting from their Russian émigré pasts. Both rejected "social" criteria for judgment and set out to build counter-models to socially oriented values. In their respective spheres, both were absolute purists, and as harsh and uncompromising as the Soviets they despised. Bell-Villada discusses his own relationship to Nabokov and Rand. "Hooked" on Nabokov in the 1960s, he later turned against and seriously criticized him. And, in reaction to America's formulaic individualism, he satirizes Rand in his own published stories.
REPLY TO GEORGE WALSH: RETHINKING RAND AND KANT, pp. 195-204
Hill argues that while Walsh is correct in urging caution regarding Rand's polemical characterizations of Kant, interpreting her charitably reveals surprising insights into the underlying structure of Kant's thought. Rand's objections to Kant's epistemology, psychology and metaphysics are truer to Kant's intentions than revisionist attempts to save him from himself. Her objections to Kantian ethics contain promising critiques of both Kant's rational reconstructive-methodology and his misuse of the concept of agent-neutral reasons. Lastly, though she paints too broadly in her account of Kant's influence, two questionable tendencies in contemporary thought are traceable to him.
A discussion of Ayn Rand's philosophy of art inspired by Louis Torres and Michelle Marder Kamhi's book,. This is the first comprehensive scholarly forum on Rand's aesthetics ever published
INTRODUCTION, pp. 251-52
WHAT ART DOES, pp. 253-63
Hunt argues that, despite its being too narrow in the topics it treats, Louis Torres and Michelle Marder Kamhi's offers a fascinating account of Ayn Rand's views on art and, in addition, constitutes a major contribution to Objectivist aesthetics.
: WHAT'S NOT TO LIKE?, pp. 265-90
Riggenbach maintains that Torres and Kamhi's adds to our understanding of Rand's key aesthetic concepts and is particularly valuable for the writings by other thinkers that it brings to bear on Rand's ideas. It is, however, remiss in failing to include any discussion of Stephen C. Pepper and in failing to discern the true importance of Susanne K. Langer's works for a fuller understanding of Rand's aesthetics. It errs also in its discussion of music, photography, and cinema. Though unnecessarily marred by flawed copyediting, it is an important work.
NORDAU'SAND TOLSTOY'S STILL LIVE, pp. 291-97
Bell-Villada argues that , by Torres and Kamhi, opens with a useful exposition of Rand's aesthetic theories. Unfortunately, once that task is completed, the book becomes mostly a rant against the twentieth century avant-garde, with little in the way of suggested alternatives. Though they offer a causal explanation for Modernism as the product of its practitioners' schizophrenia, they make no attempt at a socio-historical accounting for the emergence and triumph of vanguard art. Their dislike of the bleakness of much Modernist literature shows a lack of understanding of the dark times in which its authors lived.
CRITICAL MISINTERPRETATIONS AND MISSED OPPORTUNITIES: ERRORS AND OMISSIONS BY KAMHI AND TORRES, pp. 299-310
Bissell points out scholarly and ahistorical lapses in Kamhi and Torres's essay, "Critical Neglect of Ayn Rand's Theory of Art" (Fall 2000). He argues that they have misrepresented and neglected the views of others, and have inaccurately depicted the extent to which his own essays liken and contrast music with the other arts. Bissell criticizes their failure to acknowledge Rand's "microcosm" view of art as "re-creation of reality," which is fundamentally at odds with the Kamhi-Torres perspective.
RAND'S AESTHETICS: A PERSONAL VIEW, pp. 311-34
Hospers endeavors to relate his thoughts on philosophy of art to those of Ayn Rand, both in her published work and in discussions he had with her. In such areas as artistic creativity, artistic expression, representation, the role of feelings in art, truth and knowledge in the arts, sense of life, beauty, and aesthetic value, Hospers describes his agreements and disagreements with Rand.
REASONING ABOUT ART, pp. 335-40
Kelley discusses the relationship between philosophy and sense of life and explains why he and William Thomas do not consider sense of life essential to the explanation of why art is a major human value, though it is essential to explaining how people create and experience art. Kelley also challenges the claim by Kamhi and Torres (in their article, "Critical Neglect of Ayn Rand's Theory of Art," , Fall 2000) that aesthetics, as a branch of philosophy, is logically prior to ethics and on a par with epistemology in fundamentality.
ART: WHAT A CONCEPT, pp. 341-59
Enright examines difficulties in Rand's concept of art, particularly in light of fundamental issues raised about architecture by Torres and Kamhi in their book, . Neither architecture nor music presents a "re-creation" in the narrow sense of the term. Rand insists at times that art cannot involve utilitarian function, but elsewhere sees such functions as compatible with aesthetic effect. Enright argues for the aesthetic power of architecture. In evaluating an alternative definition of art, he views the concept as invaluable to our understanding of a profound human need.
GUGGENHEIMS AND GRAND CANYONS, pp. 361-82
Vacker argues that Torres and Kamhi's seems destined to become the seminal explication of Randian aesthetics. But the authors conflate a psychology of art with a philosophy of aesthetics, and, in so doing, embrace several aesthetic divides that have plagued modern arts and culture: art versus beauty, art versus material function, and order versus chaos. presents a theory of aesthetics that is inherently anti-aesthetic, ultimately seeking to preserve a past order against the chaotic future.
ON METAPHYSICAL VALUE-JUDGMENTS, pp. 383-86
Newberry argues that, contrary to Rand, Torres and Kamhi (authors of ) do not recognize the connections between major art forms and the metaphysical questions they seek to answer. Many of the authors' conclusions, including their re-definition of Rand's concept of art, are based on a negation of these connections. But such links are crucial to Rand's concept of metaphysical value-judgments; Newberry provides examples in support of Rand's view.
THE PUZZLE OF MUSIC AND EMOTION IN RAND'S AESTHETICS, pp. 387-89
Dipert argues that, at first glance, Rand's view of representational arts, such as literature and the visual arts, might seem to have little applicability to pure music. Nevertheless, Rand took music without words as a serious art form, and struggled to develop a plausible theory of music. As Torres and Kamhi note in , Rand's approach probably contradicted certain elements of her full aesthetic theory. But her theory of music and its relationship to emotions offers some fascinating suggestions that accord with--and in some respects go beyond--the best recent thinking in musical aesthetics.
THE BENEFITS AND HAZARDS OF DIALECTICAL LIBERTARIANISM, pp. 395-448
Long reviews , the long-awaited final volume of Chris Matthew Sciabarra's "Dialectics and Liberty" trilogy. Long finds Total Freedom to be an impressive scholarly achievement that makes a compelling case for the existence of, and the need to further promote, affinities between the seemingly disparate intellectual traditions of libertarianism and dialectics. However, Long argues that Sciabarra's neglect of certain crucial distinctions vitiates to some extent his case for dialectics, his critique of Murray Rothbard's anarchism, and his application of the Objectivist theory of abstraction to the problem of internal relations.
REPLY TO JOHNSON AND RASMUSSEN: ANOTHER LOOK AT ABORTION, pp. 449-56
Machan argues that Gregory R. Johnson and David Rasmussen (in "Rand on Abortion: A Critique," , Spring 2000) are mistaken to claim that Rand should have embraced the pro-life position on the issue of a woman's right to seek an abortion. Rand believed that a fetus is only a potential, not an actual, human being. So killing a fetus is not homicide, any more than killing a seed would be the killing of a flower. Machan's alternative view of abortion is within the spirit of Rand's position, while escaping Johnson and Rasmussen's criticisms.
REPLY TO JOHNSON AND RASMUSSEN: RAND THE MODERATE, pp. 457-67
Tabarrok argues that Gregory Johnson and David Rasmussen (in their essay, "Rand on Abortion: A Critique," , Spring 2000) misconstrue Rand's theory of individual rights and her position on abortion. Rand's views fit neatly within her Aristotelian philosophic framework. Moreover, Tabarrok defends Rand's views on the family as reasonable and well within the feminist mainstream.
REJOINDER TO MACHAN AND TABARROK: RAND ON ABORTION, REVISITED, pp. 469-85
The authors defend their critique of Ayn Rand's views on abortion, arguing that their critics miss its main points. Tibor Machan and Alexander Tabarrok actually depart from Rand's own position under the guise of defending it; they introduce a non-Randian distinction between being a human organism and being a moral person.
GENE H. BELL-VILLADA
Ron Beadle is a Principal Lecturer in Human Resource Management, Newcastle Business School, University of Northumbria, Northumberland Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, England NE1 8ST. He was educated at the London School of Economics. He has written on executive reward management and local pay determination. He is currently working part-time towards a Ph.D. on the history of the idea of the good employer.
Gene H. Bell-Villada is a Professor (and former Chair), Department of Romance Languages, Weston Hall, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts 01267. He has published essays, reviews, fiction, and satires in numerous journals, including , , , , , , , and . His books on Borges and on García Marquez are now standard classroom items, and his and was a finalist for the 1997 National Book Critics Circle Award. He has also published two books of fiction, and
Robert L. Campbell is a Professor, Department of Psychology, Clemson University, Brackett Hall 410A, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-1511. He has various research interests, including theories of human development, the development of moral personality, and the nature of free will, as well as the historical evolution of moral psychology.
Douglas J. Den Uyl is the Vice President of Education, Liberty Fund, Inc., 8335 Allison Pointe Trail, Suite 300, Indianapolis, Indiana 46250-1687. He is also Professor of Philosophy at Bellarmine College. He has published books and articles in ethics and political theory as well as in the area of the history of philosophy. He co-edited with Douglas Rasmussen , and recently published .
William Dwyer, 26119 Parkside Drive, Hayward, California 94542, earned his B.A. in Philosophy from University of California, Berkeley, in 1973. William Dwyer's early contributions to Rand scholarship were among the first to be featured in a philosophical journal: . These include such published articles as: "The Contradiction of 'The Contradiction of Determinism'" (Winter 1972); "A Reply to David Bold" (Summer 1973); "The Argument against 'An Objective Standard of Value'" (Spring 1974); "Criticisms of Egoism" (Spring 1975); and "Egoism and Renewed Hostilities" (Summer 1976). Dwyer is currently working towards a Masters in Economics at California State University at Hayward.
Martyn Dyer-Smith is the Chartered Psychologist, University of Northumbria, Carlisle Campus, Paternoster Row, Carlisle, England CA3 8TB. He spent the fall of 1995 as Visiting Research Professor at the George Washington University (USA), gathering material on Elliott Jaques's life and work. Educated at the Open University, and Strathclyde University, his other research interests include the cognition-emotion relationship, adult development, and entrepreneurship.
Doug Fraedrich, 4817 Godfrey Avenue, Alexandria, Virginia 22309, is currently a research physicist with the United States Government. He holds degrees in Physics from the College of William and Mary and in Statistics from the George Washington University. He has published articles in such diverse fields as statistics, optics, computer software and philosophy. His professional research interests involve the validation of scientific simulations. This epistemological research, combined with his personal interest in Objectivism, has resulted in philosophical investigations into the scientific method.
Michelle Fram-Cohen, 6202 Satan Wood Drive, Columbia, Maryland 21044, holds an M.A. in Comparative Literature and Translation Studies from the State University of New York at Binghamton. She works as a computer programmer and freelance Hebrew translator. Her literary publications include book reviews, poetry translations, and short essays in , , and
R. Kevin Hill is an Assistant Professor, Northwestern University, Department of Philosophy, Brentano Hall, 1818 Hinman Avenue, Evanston, Illinois, 60202. He is the author of the forthcoming , as well as articles on Nietzsche, Heidegger, Foucault and MacIntyre.
Gregory R. Johnson is a philosopher in private practice in Atlanta.
Tibor R. Machan is the Distinguished Fellow and Freedom Communications Professor of Business Ethics and Free Enterprise at the Leatherby Center of Chapman University, Argyros School of Business and Economics, Orange, California 92866. He is also Professor Emeritus at Auburn University's Department of Philosophy and Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution (Stanford, California). He has written, among other works, (Peter Lang, 1999), (Cato Institute, 1998), and (Routledge, 1998).
Karen Michalson, P.O. Box 332, Southbridge, Massachusetts 01550, is a professional musician and novelist. She is the author of (Tor Books), Book One in her dark fantasy series of the same name, and she is the lead singer-bass player of her rock band, Point Of Ares. She contributed an essay to (Penn State Press, 1999), and has written articles for many other national publications. She is also the author of (Edwin Mellen Press), a study of the politics of canon-making and nineteenth century fantasy writers. She holds a Ph.D. in English from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Kirsti Minsaas, University of Oslo, Department of British and American Studies, P. O. Box 1003 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway, is a research fellow in English literature at the University of Oslo, Norway. Receiving her doctorate in 1998, her dissertation topic was on the role of Aristotelian catharsis in Shakespearean tragedy, and she is currently working on a project on the "exemplary hero" in English literature from 1590 to 1820. She has also lectured extensively on Ayn Rand's fiction, both in Europe and in the United States.
2698 Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037. Carolyn Ray obtained her Ph.D. and M.A. in philosophy at Indiana University, and her B.A. in philosophy at Hollins College. Author of a doctoral dissertation on "Identity and Universals," she specializes in epistemology and applied ethics. Ray practices philosophical consulting, landscape consulting, and web programming in La Jolla, California and on the Internet. She is also editor of the journal Objectivity, and heads Enlightenment, an organization that promotes Objectivist scholarship.
Chris Matthew Sciabarra is a Visiting Scholar, Department of Politics, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th floor, New York, New York 10003. He is the author of the "Dialectics and Liberty Trilogy," which includes Marx, Hayek, and Utopia (State University of New York Press, 1995), Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), and Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). He is also coeditor, with Mimi Reisel Gladstein, of Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999)
Matthew Stoloff holds a B.A. in philosophy from the University of Cincinnati and a Masters in Labor Relations and Human Resources from the School of Labor and Industrial Relations at Michigan State University. His current research interests include labor law, corporate campaigns, and corporate crimes.
Leland B. Yeager, Department of Economics, College of Business, Auburn University, Alabama 36849-5242, is is Paul Goodloe McIntire Professor of Economics Emeritus at the University of Virginia and Ludwig von Mises Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Economics at Auburn University. His most recent book is (Edward Elgar, 2001).
ROGER E. BISSELL
Gene H. Bell-Villada is a Professor (and former Chair), Department of Romance Languages, Weston Hall, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts 01267. He has published essays, reviews, fiction, and satires in numerous journals, including , , , , , , , and . His books on Borges and on Garc¡rquez are now standard classroom items, and his and was a finalist for the 1997 National Book Critics Circle Award. He has also published two books of fiction, and
RANDALL R. DIPERT
Roger E. Bissell is a professional musician and graduate student in psychology at California Coast University. He is also a writer on psychology and philosophy. His work has appeared in a number of publications, including , , , , and .
Randall R. Dipert is C. S. Peirce Professor of American Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260. He has published on aesthetics, the philosophy of mind, and logic, including (1993).
John Enright is a poet and computer consultant. He has written and lectured on many aspects of the aesthetics of poetry. His essays have appeared in , , and . He is the author of (Axton).
LESTER H. HUNT
John Hospers is a Professor Emeritus (Department of Philosophy, University of Southern California). He 8229 Lookout Mt. Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90046. He was a professor of philosophy at Brooklyn College in the early 1960s when he met Ayn Rand on the occasion of Rand's speech at the college in the spring of 1960. She invited him to her home, and they had regular discussions for several years prior to his moving to California. He was Chair of the Philosophy Department at the University of Southern California for some years, and is now retired and living in Los Angeles. He has written more than a hundred articles, and his best-known books include . He was the first candidate for U. S. President for the Libertarian Party (1972) and still gives talks to various groups, such as the International Society for Individual Liberty.
GREGORY R. JOHNSON
Lester H. Hunt is a Professor of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 600 North Park Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. He is the author of (Routledge) and (Rowman and Littlefield).
Gregory R. Johnson is a philosopher in private practice in Atlanta.
RODERICK T. LONG
David Kelley is the Executive Director, The Objectivist Center, 11 Raymond Avenue, Suite 31, Poughkeepsie, New York 12603. He is the author of , , and numerous other articles, monographs, and reviews. A new edition of his , re-titled , has just been published by The Objectivist Center and Transaction Publishers.
TIBOR R. MACHAN
Roderick T. Long is an Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, 6080 Haley Center, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, A.B. Harvard 1985, Ph.D. Cornell 1992. He is the author of (The Objectivist Center, 2000), and various articles on ethics, libertarianism, and Greek philosophy.
Tibor R. Machan is the Distinguished Fellow and Professor at the Leatherby Center of Chapman University, Argyros School of Business and Economics, Orange, California 92866. He is also Professor Emeritus at Auburn University's Department of Philosophy and Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution (Stanford, California). He has written, among other works, (Peter Lang, 1999), (Cato Institute, 1998), and (Routledge, 1998). He is editor of the series "Philosophic Reflections on a Free Society" at the Hoover Institution Press.
Michael Newberry, Theophiliskou 5, 85100 Rhodes, Greece, is a painter who has exhibited his work throughout the world. He taught at Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles and has given lectures on the creative process and form versus formlessness at The Objectivist Center's Summer Seminars. In July 1999, he was featured in CNN International's "The Art Club," which had a worldwide audience.
David Rasmussen is an independent scholar living in Carson City, Nevada.
Jeff Riggenbach is the author of (Prometheus, 1998). He has been a working critic of the arts (most notably of literature, music, and film) since 1972, publishing widely in newspapers and magazines, including , , , , , , and . From 1996 to 2000, he taught courses in philosophy, music appreciation, popular culture, and writing at the Academy of Art College in San Francisco.
Alexander Tabarrok is the Vice President and Director of Research, The Independent Institute, 100 Swan Way, Oakland, California 94621-1428. He received his Ph.D. in economics from George Mason University. He has taught economics at the University of Virginia and Ball State University. His papers have appeared in , , , , , and many other academic journals. In addition, he has contributed opinion-editorial pieces to magazines and newspapers across the United States.
Barry Vacker is an Assistant Professor, Meadows School of the Arts, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275. He is the author of many articles on aesthetics and technology. His forthcoming book, , offers a radical reinterpretation of the aesthetics and technologies of utopia, past and future.